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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract A rocket-motor case made of consumable-electrode vacuum arc remelted D-6ac alloy steel failed during hydrostatic proof-pressure testing. Close visual examination, magnetic-particle inspection, and hardness tests showed cracks that appeared to have occurred after austenitizing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089734
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... welds joining 200 mm (8 in.) diam 90 deg elbows and pipe to 200 mm (8 in.) diam welding-neck flanges. A flange-elbow-flange assembly and a flange-pipe assembly that had leaked were removed for examination. Investigation (visual inspection, hardness testing, chemical analysis, magnetic-particle testing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0090947
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract Valve seats fractured during testing and during service. The seats were machined from grade 11L17 steel and were surface hardened by carburization. Investigation (visual inspection, hardness testing, 59x SEM images, and 2% nital etched 15x cross sections) supported the conclusion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... techniques and discusses the advantages and limitations of each technique when used in failure analysis. The focus is on various types of static load testing, hardness testing, and impact testing. The testing types covered include uniaxial tension testing, uniaxial compression testing, bend testing, hardness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... examination, and hardness testing) supported the conclusions that galling had been caused by a combination of local overload and abnormal vibration of mating parts of the roller-bearing assembly. No recommendations were made. Galling Overheating Roller bearings 4720 UNS G47200 17-4 PH UNS S17400...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... to an expensive gear mechanism. The rotor was subjected to severe chatter, which was an abnormal condition resulting from a series of continuous small overloads occurring at a frequency of around three per second. Investigation (visual inspection, hardness testing, and hot acid etch images) supported...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... (visual inspection, 100x/500x/800x micrographic examination, spectrographic analysis, and hardness testing) supported the conclusions that, as a result of improper heat treatment, the combustion-chamber material was too soft for successful use in this application. Misalignment of the combustion chamber...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0046195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... hardened to a depth of 0.13 to 0.4 mm (0.005 to 0.015 in.) by carbonitriding. Specifications required that the part be carbonitrided, cooled, rehardened by quenching from 790 deg C (1450 deg F), then tempered at about 175 deg C (350 deg F). Visual examination, hardness testing, and metallographic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0090994
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... strength range was 1689 to 1793 MPa (245 to 260 ksi). The finished springs were to be shot peened for greater fatigue resistance. Investigation (visual inspection, 3x images, 2% nital etched 148x SEM images, chemical analysis, hardness testing, and EDS analysis) supported the conclusion that the springs...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0090943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... and hardness testing, 119x SEM images, and potassium dichromate etched 297x metallographic images) supported the conclusion that the bronze gear cracked via mixed-mode overload, rather than by a progressive mechanism such as fatigue or stress-corrosion cracking. The cracking was not associated with regions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0092148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... The cylinder in which the spool fitted was made of 1117 steel, also gas carburized. Investigation (visual inspection, low magnification images, 400x images, metallographic exam, and hardness testing) supported the conclusion that momentary sliding contact between the spool and the cylinder wall caused unstable...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., and thickness measurements at various locations indicated that thicknesses were well within standard industry tolerances for aluminum extrusions in this size range. However, hardness testing of the four T-sections showed that in two, hardness was considerably lower than the acceptable hardness for the T6 temper...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0046366
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... marks were submitted for examination. Analysis (visual inspection, manual testing of the hardness and adherence of the chromium plating, 100x microscopic examination, and hardness testing) supported the conclusions that high localized loads on the cylinder had resulted in chipping of the chromium...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The article discusses metallurgical instabilities of steel-based alloys and nickel-base superalloys. It provides information on several life assessment methods, namely, the life fraction rule, parameter-based assessments, the thermal-mechanical fatigue, coating evaluations, hardness testing, microstructural...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... curvature, preheated, then solution treated, water quenched, and then aged for 8 to 10 h. Analysis (visual inspection, slow-bend testing, 65x macrographic analysis, macroetching, spectrographic analysis, hardness tests, microhardness tests, tension tests, and microscopic examination) supported...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001905
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract A bomb retaining ring fabricated from type 302 stainless steel unwrapped during a practice flight, causing the bomb fins to deploy. The retaining ring was able to unwrap itself because it was thinner and softer than required. Hardness testing, metallography, and tensile...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0091594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... inspection, hardness testing, and micrographic cross-sections) supported the conclusion that the failure was caused by lean amine SCC. It was considered unlikely that these pipe welds had received such a postweld heat treatment, although it is industry practice to postweld stress relieve piping and pressure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...). Cracking occurred in welded joints and in unwelded portions of the bellows. The bellows were made by forming the convolution halves from stainless steel sheet, then welding the convolutions together. Evidence from visual examination, liquid penetrant inspection chemical analysis, hardness tests...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c0089716
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... not positively identified but were generally classified as semi-killed carbon steels. Investigation (visual inspection, hardness testing, chemical analysis, Charpy V-notch testing, and drop-weight testing) supported the conclusions that the fracture was initiated by weld imperfections and propagated in a brittle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001906
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
..., hardness testing, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. It was determined that the failures were due to forging defects. Both forging laps and seams acted as stress concentrators when the lugs were loaded during proof testing. Bombs (weapons) Suspension lugs...