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hardness conversions

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ). The compiled data were used to produce graphical representations (curves) from which equations describing these curves were derived. These equations were subsequently used to generate the tabular data commonly used to convert one hardness scale to another. As stated in the “Principle of Method of Conversion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract The repeated failure of rubber-covered rotors and volute liners in a flue gas desulfurization system after conversion from lime slurry reagent to limestone slurry reagent was investigated. The pump was a horizontal 50 x 65 mm (2 x 2.5 in.) Galiger pump with a split cast iron case...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001664
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... value was 158 (±2) HV. This corresponds [ 13 , 14 ] to HRB 81. To our knowledge, no general correlations exist which allow an accurate conversion of the hardness to tensile and yield strength for austenitic stainless steel. However, data are available for annealed austenitic stainless steels [ 15...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0092135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... thicker and more uniform, and/or developing an alternative nontoxic metal shot with a hardness in the range of 30 to 40 HB. Ammunition Guns 1138 UNS G11380 Gross yielding A standard commercial shotgun barrel fabricated from 1138 steel deformed during a test that was made with a new type...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048733
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract The brine-heater shell in a seawater-conversion plant failed by bursting along a welded joint connecting the hot well (C70600 per ASTM B 466) to the heater shell (ASTM A285, grade C steel). Three cracks in the welded joints between the heater shell and the hot well were revealed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... to calculate the conversion or degree of cure from the ΔH res or from T g,res if the T g conversion relationship has been established. Rheological Methods In addition to the curing process, the flow of the uncured resin formulation is a key processing parameter. As such, rheological methods...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Hardness, HRC (conversion) mm in. 0.025 0.001 917 68 0.050 0.002 842 65 0.076 0.003 907 68 0.102 0.004 863 66 0.127 0.005 907 68 0.254 0.010 1017 >70 0.254 0.010 863 66 0.254 0.010 842 65 Carbide-deficient region 766 62 749 61 755 61...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001134
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in.). An estimated conversion to Brinell hardness suggested that the material was harder than the value recommended for safety (302 to 352 HB). Microhardness values <xref rid="c9001134-tn1" ref-type="table-fn">(a)</xref> Table 1 Microhardness values (a) Distance from edge Knoop hardness Brinell...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Rockwell C (HRC) 20.2. This hardness value corresponds to a tensile strength of about 758 MPa (110 ksi) per the ASTM A370 approximate tensile strength conversion. This value meets the specification requirements. Discussion The multiple, radially-oriented mixed mode cracking observed in the disc...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... 0.40 370 37 12.0 0.50 380 38 14.0 0.55 380 38 16.0 0.60 330 32 18.0 0.70 350 35 20.0 0.80 310 31 22.0 0.90 280 25 24.0 1.0 290 27 (a) Extrapolated from ASTMA 370 tabulated conversation Fig. 6 Knoop hardnesses versus distance from the striking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Several type 316L stainless steel wires in an electrostatic precipitator at a paper plant fractured in an unexpectedly short time. Failed wires were examined using optical and scanning electron microscope, and hardness tests were conducted. Fractography clearly established...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... a highly deformed microstructure. Significant increases in yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and hardness, and a corresponding reduction in ductility, accompany the flow forming process. Conventionally, tubes are produced by hot extrusion followed by drawing or pilgering. However...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in accordance with ASTM C 384. Using a standard conversion table, Knoop 500 gf values were converted to Rockwell C hardness values. A transverse section that had been cut using water cooling and then metallographically polished to remove work hardening and cutting effects was tested. The hardness values of one...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... wear can be defined as “wear in which hard asperities on one body penetrate the surface of a softer body and ‘dig’ material from the softer surface, leaving a depression or groove.” The asperities may be small, hard particles or may be asperities of the larger, harder body. Because the most obvious...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract Wear, a form of surface deterioration, is a factor in a majority of component failures. This article is primarily concerned with abrasive wear mechanisms such as plastic deformation, cutting, and fragmentation which, at their core, stem from a difference in hardness between contacting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... The parent material hardness is 76.7 HRB (average of five readings, ±1 HRB). This reading is within the 95 HRB maximum, as specified for the material in ASTM A167 [ 1 ]. In the vicinity of the weld, the hardness reading measurements ranged from 75.5 to 91 HRB (equivalent, conversion from Knoop microhardness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... The Rockwell B hardness of the 3-in. pipe was 73 ± 2, while the hardness of the reduction fitting was Rockwell B 82 ± 2. The hardness of the weld metal remote from the rupture was Rockwell B 85 ± 2. Based on the ASTM A-370 approximate correlation between Rockwell B hardness and tensile strength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... can produce unexpected responses to heat treatments, which result in hard or soft spots, quench cracks, or other flaws. Excessive segregation that leads to significant variations in hardness can lead to premature failure and extreme difficulties during cold working or forming. In this case, one...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... D2583). A rough comparison of hardness scales for these methods is shown in Fig. 19 , but it must be understood that any conversions from Fig. 19 are only rough estimates that vary depending on the materials. Hardness conversions are complicated by several material factors such as elastic recovery...