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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0046388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... Abstract The bolt in a bolt and thimble assembly used to connect a wire rope to a crane hanger bracket was worn excessively. Two worn bolts, one new bolt, and a new thimble were examined. Specifications required the bolts to be made of 4140 steel heat treated to a hardness of 277 to 321 HRB...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... occurred in links having hardness values in the range of 375 to 444 HRB. It was revealed by the supplier that the previous hardness level of 302 to 375 HRB was increased to minimize wear which made the links were made notch sensitive and resulted in fractures that initiated at the butt-weld flash on the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... specifications. Samples from both the inner and outer rings were examined. A much lower hardness (25.2 to 18.9 HRC) was indicated during a vertical traverse 4.1 cm from the outer surface of the outer ring while slightly lower hardness values (46.8 to 54.8 HRC) were seen on the hardness traverse on the inner ring...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0045988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract During installation, a clamp-strap assembly, specified to be type 410 stainless steel-austenitized at 955 to 1010 deg C (1750 to 1850 deg F), oil quenched, and tempered at 565 deg C (1050 deg F) for 2 h to achieve a hardness of 30 to 35 HRC, and used for securing the caging mechanism...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0047406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract A cast countershaft pinion on a car puller for a blast furnace broke after one month of service; expected life was 12 months. The pinion was specified to be made of 1045 steel heat treated to a hardness of 245 HRB. The pinion steel was analyzed and was a satisfactory alternative to...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0045992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... specified to be case hardened to 55 to 60 HRC, with a case depth of 0.6 to 0.9 mm (0.025 to 0.035 in.); the hardness of the mating valve seat was 40 HRC. Analysis showed that the fracture occurred through two 8 mm (0.313 in.) diam holes at the narrowest section of the poppet. The valve continued to operate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0089534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... hardness values (close to the maximum hardness values attainable) for the core. It was interpreted that the low tempering temperature used may have contributed to the brittleness. The procedures used for casting the jaws were recommended to be revised to eliminate the internal shrinkage porosity. Tempering...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0048077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... examination. The shaft was identified by chemical analysis to be 1040 steel (hardness 170 HRB) which was concluded to have insufficient fatigue strength. The step at the base of the fillet was revealed as the point of initiation of the fatigue crack. Shaft material was changed to 4140 steel oil-quenched and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... similar to ASTM A395. Visual examination of the rotor revealed unusually heavy oxidation and thermal fatigue cracking along the edge of the gas passage. Material properties, including microstructure, composition, and hardness, of both the rotor and housing were evaluated to determine the cause of failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0048164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract A flat spring for the main landing gear of a light aircraft failed after safe execution of a hard landing. The spring material was identified by chemical analysis to be 6150 steel. The fracture was found to have occurred near the end of the spring that was inserted through a support...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Initial investigation showed that a landing gear failure was the result of a hard landing with no evidence of contributory factors. The objective of reexamination was to determine whether there was any evidence of metallurgical failure. The landing gear was primarily an AISI type 6150...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... failure was insufficient surface hardness, resulting from improper heat treatment. A service recall for the remaining pinions was immediately initiated. Hardness Heat treatment Hypoid gears Railroad cars Trains 4820 UNS G48200 Abrasive wear The hypoid pinion shown in Fig. 1 was placed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0047840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... corrective measure, the hole through the square end of the mandrel was incorporated into the design of the tool and was drilled and reamed before heat treatment and specified hardness of the threaded portion and square end of the mandrel was reduced. Drilling Electric discharge machining Rockwell...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... vapor environment. However, failure analysis showed that cavitation erosion was the responsible failure mechanism, not corrosion as might be expected. Cavitation erosion Hardness Microstructure SO2 316 UNS S31600 1006 UNS G10060 Erosive wear Erosion - corrosion Cavitation wear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... thickness of the tube with age, resulting in puncture and consequent widening of the puncture with the assistance of corrosion. A similar type of local corrosion was observed in the Stage 2 tube, but was at early or intermediate stages. The high hardness near the failure was attributed to the formation of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
.... Hardness Hot-strip mill Rolling mill rolls Spalling Ductile iron Gray iron Fatigue fracture Rolling-contact wear References 1. Shaughnessy R.N. : J. Iron Steel Inst. , 1968 , vol. 206 ( 10 ), pp. 981 – 86 . 10.1139/g68-126 2. Kapadia B.M. and Marsden...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., failure by corrosion, failure by plastic flow, failure by rolling-contact fatigue, and failure by damage. The article discusses the effects of fabrication practices, heat treatment and hardness of bearing components, and lubrication of rolling-element bearings with a few examples. corrosion damage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001268
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... plastically deformed while two of the deformed leafs did not meet minimal hardness or tensile requirements. Liquid penetrant testing revealed no cracks or other surface discontinuities on the leaf springs. Material sectioned from the soft spring leafs was heat-treated according to specifications in the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Pipes made of low-carbon Thomas steel had been welded longitudinally employing the carbon-arc process with bare electrode wire made for argon-shielded arc welding. Difficulties were encountered during the cutting of threads because of the presence of hard spots. Microstructural...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0046057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... micrographic examination showed a microstructure of tempered martensite with low inclusion content as well as a pit or burned spot on the outer area of the ring. The defect was approximately 0.18 mm (0.007 in.) deep and 0.5 mm (0.020 in.) in diam and had a hardness of 58 to 60 HRC. The base metal adjacent to...