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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract Hardenability evaluation is typically applied to heat treatment process control, but can also augment standard metallurgical failure analysis techniques for steel components. A comprehensive understanding of steel hardenability is an essential complement to the skills...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract A case-hardened sleeve made of C 15 (Material No. 1.0401) was flattened at two opposing sides and had cracked open at these places, the crack initiating at a face plane. The wall of the sleeve was 9 mm thick, but the flat ends were machined down to 5.5 mm from the outside...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001212
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract Operation handles produced from C45 steel showed many fine cracks at the flame hardened noses. The cracks ran from the corners of indentations caused by the tool during alignment. Metallographic investigation showed the nose was overheated during flame hardening...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract Rollover accidents in light trucks and cars involving an axle failure frequently raise the question of whether the axle broke causing the rollover or did the axle break as a result of the rollover. Axles in these vehicles are induction hardened medium carbon steel. Bearings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... Microstructural examination showed welding conditions were such that a carburizing atmosphere developed, which led to an increase in carbon content and hardening at certain locations such as terminal bells and lap joints. This explained the processing difficulties during the threading operation. Hardening...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... steel hardened to 36 to 38 HRc, whereas the race was also of 17-4PH hardened to 26 to 35 HRc. The ball was constructed of 440C steel hardened to 55 to 62 HRc. The liner was a Teflon impregnated sintered bronze matrix. The fracture surface was found to contain beach marks originating at the tips...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... appear in comparatively short journal pins at high stresses. This crankshaft fracture was an example of the damage that is caused or promoted neither by material nor heat treatment mistakes nor by defects of design or machining, but solely by overstressing. Crankshafts Induction hardening...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract The 8620 steel latch tip, carburized and then induction hardened to a minimum surface hardness of 62 HRC, on the main-clutch stop arm on a business machine fractured during normal operation when the latch tip was subjected to intermittent impact loading. Fractographic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract Splined rotor shafts (constructed from 1151 steel) used on small electric motors were found to miss one spline each from several shafts before the motors were put into service. Apparent peeling of splines on the induction-hardened end of each rotor shaft was revealed by visual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001502
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... heat treat hardening specifications. The mode of failure was tooth profile spalling. By definition, spalling originates at a case/core interface or at the juncture of a hardened/nonhardened area. The cause of this failure was either insufficient or no induction-hardened case along the active profile...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001208
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract A spindle made of hardenable 13% chromium steel X40 Cr13 (Material No. 1.4034) that was fastened to a superheated steam push rod made of high temperature structural steel 13Cr-Mo44 (Material No. 1.7335) by means of a convex fillet weld, fractured at the first operation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... manufactured from an unkilled carbon-deficient steel, and were case hardened to a depth of 0.8 to 0.9 mm. The peripheral structure at the places not showing wear consisted of coarse acicular martensite with a high percentage of retained austenite. The links therefore were strongly overheated, probably directly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0047694
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0047406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... alternative to 1045 steel. The pinion was annealed before flame or induction hardening of the teeth to a surface hardness of 363 HRB and a core hardness of 197 HRB. The broken pinion had a tooth which had failed by fatigue fracture through the tooth root because of the low strength from incomplete surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0046195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... and was case hardened to a depth of 0.13 to 0.4 mm (0.005 to 0.015 in.) by carbonitriding. Specifications required that the part be carbonitrided, cooled, rehardened by quenching from 790 deg C (1450 deg F), then tempered at about 175 deg C (350 deg F). Visual examination, hardness testing, and metallographic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract Deformation, surface cracking, and spalling on the raceway of the outer ring (made of 4140 steel) of a large bearing caused it to be replaced from a radar antenna. The raceway surfaces were to be flame hardened to 55 HRC minimum and 50 HRC 3.2 mm below the surface, according...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... through hardening and heat treatment does not present any serious difficulty. Care is still required in processing to avoid decarburization. In an application of track pins for tracked vehicles, bars about 22 mm diam were required in heat treated and centerless-ground condition prior to induction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of alternative solutions were identified and then validated based on chemical analysis, endurance and hardness tests, and microstructural examination. The investigation revealed that carbonitriding can effectively eliminate the type of failure encountered because it prevents through hardening of the bearing cup...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0009222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Dimensions alone do not determine a design. A designer must consider the type of steel and whether it will be hardened by quenching in water, oil, or air. Generally, liquid-hardened tools require a conservative design; air-hardened tools can tolerate some features that are improper for liquid quenching...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
.... Fracture of the springs was caused by stress cracks as a consequence of local hardening. The hardening caused by melting and resolidification, and therefore the cracks in the springs, was the result of a faulty procedure during cadmium electroplating. Cadmium plating Leaf springs Stress cracking C...