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hardenability curves

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0089534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... except for low manganese, slightly high chromium, and lower silicon than would normally be expected in a cast steel. The hardness range of the core conforms to data in end-quench hardenability curves for 3310 steel. It represents, in fact, essentially the maximum hardness values attainable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and plastic deformation characteristics are generally the same in compression and tension. As a result, the elastic modulus, yield strength, and work-hardening curves will be the same in compression and tension tests. However, the fracture strength, ultimate strength, and ductility depend on localized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... capability associated with the shrinking cross-sectional area until the tensile strength is reached at the end of uniform elongation. Positive slope is a characteristic of this region in engineering stress-strain curves. Work hardening continues even after the tensile strength is reached, but the load...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003513
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ( Fig. 4 , 7 ). If the stress-strain curves for the material demonstrated a greater strain-hardening effect than in Fig. 6 , the fracture toughnesses for Level 2c would be greater than those of Level 2a. The fracture toughnesses required from the Level 1 analysis are 1.2 to 2.2 times those of the more...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Incorporating Nonlinear Hardening Effects , Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct. , Vol 42 , 2019 , p 239 – 255 10.1111/ffe.12900 130. Ramberg W. and Osgood W.R. , “ Description of Stress-Strain Curves by Three Parameters ,” Technical Note 902, National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... by which it was produced. A stronger decarburization of the case was a contributing factor that could not be prevented by working because the thread was rolled. Hardening tests conducted by the bolt manufacturer showed that quench cracks did not occur in specimens that were turned down before hardening...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., a relatively hard transformation product; and to achieve the desired as-quenched hardness. The most common transformational products that may be formed from austenite in quench-hardenable steels are, in order of formation with decreasing cooling rate: martensite, bainite, pearlite, ferrite, and cementite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... design concepts Table 1 Methods and material characteristics for fatigue design concepts Design philosophy Design concept Material characteristics Safe-life, infinite-life Nominal stress or local stress concept S - N curve, S a = f ( N F ) Fatigue diagram, S a = f ( S...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... classical creep curves may be overlooked, unless accurate creep readings are taken at sufficiently close intervals, particularly during early stages of creep. Secondary creep is an equilibrium condition between the mechanisms of work hardening and recovery; it is also known as steady-state creep...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... Larger grained materials shift the nose of the Time-Temperature-Transformation (TTT) curve to the right, inhibiting pearlite nucleation and promoting martensite formation. Much of the hardenability research has been performed on a moderately fine grain size, Size 7 per ASTM E112, with correction factors...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in.) diameter hardened-steel machine rod that failed by fatigue fracture. Curved beach marks identify two distinct fracture origins, separated by a step of overload fracture (light gray). Older parts of fatigue fracture are decorated by corrosion product (rust, appears dark in this photograph), but the last...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of Torque due to Sudden Reversing Case 1 Maximum stress acting on the spline shaft is less than fatigue limit of material (300 N/mm 2 from SN curve) in the first case. Hence, it will not result in the failure of the shaft. Case 2 In the second case, the stress values are exceeding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... initiation occurs for stress curves 3 and 4, while surface initiation is expected for higher-stress levels 1 and 2. Source: Ref 10 Fig. 4 Subsurface fatigue origins (at arrows) in an induction-hardened 8.25 cm (3.25 in.) high-manganese medium-carbon steel axle laboratory tested in rotating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., departures from classical creep curves could be overlooked, unless accurate creep readings are taken at sufficiently close intervals, particularly during early stages of creep. Secondary creep is an equilibrium condition between the mechanisms of work hardening and recovery; it is also known as steady...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... the measured hardness values. The surface hardness is affected by retained austenite formation as had been determined already metallographically, and the core hardness at the flattened points is too high for a surface hardened piece that should have a core of some strain capacity. Fig. 5 Hardness curve...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... When the rotor is stopped and the action of the centrifugal force is removed, redistribution of the stress will occur, say to point C situated between O and B. The next cycle would be represented by a curve of the form CDEF, the yield point being higher because of the work hardening that has occurred...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Trans. A 14 ( 3 ), 471 – 484 ( 1983 ) 10.1007/BF02644224 13. Kiessling R. Non-Metallic Inclusions in Steel, Part III , Iron and Steel Institute [ London ], 1968 14. Boyer H.E. (ed.) Atlas of Fatigue Curves , American Society for Metals , 1986 15. Thornton...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ORVAR 2 Microdized (AISI H13) steel, properly heat-treated and surface hardened. Cylindrical billets of Al-6063 preheated to about 425 °C were extruded using these dies. The dies were also preheated to about 425 °C before being placed into the extrusion chamber (container). The container is maintained...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... steel and was adapted to the latter by diffusion only at the periphery of the inclusion. In another section of a hardened piece of the same chromium steel, the steel in this case had a structure of martensite with hypereutectic carbide, while the inclusions consisted of a very fine laminated eutectoid...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... . But it is also entirely possible that the hot spots occurred at least in part after fracturing through polishing of break-away splinters. As can be seen from the transverse section ( Fig. 4 ) and the hardness-depth curve ( Fig. 5 ) the roll was hardened to a depth of 18 to 20 mm. The peripheral structure...