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hard natural rubber

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... with the “natural rubber” designation of the liners and impeller coatings. Mechanical Properties Hardness Hardness was determined using a Shore A durometer. The hardness of each component was within ±5 units of the specified nominal hardness, acceptable for most rubber products. Simulation Tests...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... described. The article discusses the processes involved in the short-term and long-term tensile testing of plastics. Information on the strength/modulus and deflection tests, impact toughness, hardness testing, and fatigue testing of plastics is also provided. The article describes tension testing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006945
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... polyisoprene International Rubber Hardness Degrees International Organization for Standardization intrinsic viscosity liquid chromatography liquid crystal polymer linear elastic fracture mechanics low-density polyethylene linear low-density polyethylene limiting oxygen index liquid-solid chromatography laser...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006870
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... Application of a load results in an initial linear stress–strain response, representing elastic deformation. Continued application of stress produces plastic deformation and yielding prior to rupture. In contrast, the stress–strain curve associated with natural rubber exhibits an ever-increasing slope...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... primarily from the interest in the friction and wear of automobile tires and industrial seals. Schallamach carried out extensive studies on relatively softer rubbers such as polyisoprene, butyl rubber, and natural rubber ( Ref 21 , 22 ). Through extensive experimentation on the sliding of rubber against...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the electrochemical nature of corrosion and provides the typical analysis of environmental- and corrosion-related failures. It presents common methods of testing of laboratory corrosion and discusses the processes involved in the prevention of environmental- and corrosion-related failures of metals and nonmetals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... Elastomers The study of wear of elastomers has evolved primarily from interest in the friction and wear of automobile tires and industrial seals. Schallamach carried out extensive studies on relatively softer rubbers such as polyisoprene, butyl rubber, and natural rubber ( Ref 20 , 21 ). Through...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of coupling 1. Fig. 6 Coupling 1, which remained above water level in pump shaft housing (as cut for disassembly from pump shaft) A representative bearing, as removed from the pump, is shown in Fig. 7 and 8 . Each of the bearings was constructed as a longitudinally grooved, hard rubber lining...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... hardness levels for polymers are much lower than those for metals and ceramics. For elastomeric materials such as natural rubbers and polyurethanes, the deformation behavior during abrasive wear may be entirely elastic, in which case resilience or hysteresis loss is important. High resilience favors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... rather than remain linear. This coiling is believed to be responsible for the elasticity observed in elastomers (e.g., rubber). Fig. 5 Geometric isomers of polyisoprene. (a) Cis-polyisoprene (natural rubber). (b) Trans-polyisoprene (gutta percha). Source: Ref 4 Polymer Structure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to the viscoelastic nature of polymer deformation behavior. In addition, the absolute hardness levels for polymers are much lower than those for metals and ceramics. For elastomeric materials such as natural rubbers and polyurethanes, the deformation behavior during abrasive wear may be entirely elastic, in which...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Portable hardness tester Acetate tape, acetone, and containers RTV rubber for replicas Service History The availability of a complete service history depends on how detailed and thorough the record keeping was prior to the failure. A complete service record greatly simplifies the assignment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... process that could be either a dry or a wet process. Talc Talc is commonly used as a surface-dusting material to prevent rubber compounds from sticking together. It is a naturally occurring mineral deposit of either hydrated magnesium calcium silicate or hydrated magnesium silicate. The median...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is needed, given the complexity of the involved tribological phenomena ( Ref 1 – 4 ). Therefore, it is convenient to refer to the so-called wear processes that are identified according to the nature of the motion between the mating surfaces. The main wear processes are listed in Table 1 , together...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006913
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... in terms of their electrical properties, some of which are conductive or semiconductive. Elastomers, which are natural or synthetic rubber-like materials with excellent elastic properties, are often used. Their designations and general electrical applications are given in Table 7 . Table 8 provides...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001440
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... the mishap were as follows: The vessel, which was located on a building site, was connected to the burner of an asphalt melting pan by means of a rubber hose pipe. After making the connection, the attendant fully opened the regulating valve on the vessel and then partly opened the one on the burner; when...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Metallographic examination is one of the most important procedures used by metallurgists in failure analysis. Typically, the light microscope (LM) is used to assess the nature of the material microstructure and its influence on the failure mechanism. Microstructural examination can...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... electron metallographic instruments, such as the scanning electron microscope, has not diminished the importance of light microscopy. Basically, the light microscope is used to assess the nature of the microstructure and its influence on the failure mechanism. The purpose in using the light microscope may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... on conditions. Elastic materials (e.g., rubber) usually experience the maximum rate at angles lower than for ductile ones ( Ref 47 , 48 ), while materials consisting of several phases experience mixed behavior, and their maximum is usually positioned between the maxima of constituents ( Fig. 1 ). The graph...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... are specifically heat treated to a surface hardness of 58 + 4 HRC over a sufficient thickness to resist the triaxial Hertzian stresses built under the surface of the raceways and the rolling elements; the triaxial Hertzian stresses are generated by the external normal compressive load. Under repeated contact loads...