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hard magnetic materials

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... in disk drives consists of a metal, glass, ceramic, or plastic substrate coated with a magnetic material. Data errors are classified as ‘soft’ or ‘hard’ depending on their correctability. Examination has shown that hard errors are the result of an abrasive wear process that begins with contact between...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0047100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... series steel with a carbon content of 0.38 to 0.53%, a hardness of 35 to 40 HRC for the shaft, and a hardness of 50 to 55 HRC for the notch (which was case hardened). Analysis (visual inspection, chemical analysis, hardness testing, and magnetic particle inspection) supported the conclusions that all...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0048077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... by microscopic examination. The shaft was identified by chemical analysis to be 1040 steel (hardness 170 HRB) which was concluded to have insufficient fatigue strength. The step at the base of the fillet was revealed as the point of initiation of the fatigue crack. Shaft material was changed to 4140 steel oil...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0090994
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract Two large tension springs fractured during installation. The springs were manufactured from a grade 9254 chromium-silicon steel spring wire. The associated material specification allows wire in the cold-drawn or oil-tempered (quenched-and-tempered) condition. The specified...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract A rocket-motor case made of consumable-electrode vacuum arc remelted D-6ac alloy steel failed during hydrostatic proof-pressure testing. Close visual examination, magnetic-particle inspection, and hardness tests showed cracks that appeared to have occurred after austenitizing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... SEM examination revealed that the fracture origin was a subsurface defect-a hard refractory (Al2O3) inclusion—in the zone close to the pin radius. Chemical analysis showed the crankshaft material to be of inferior quality. It was recommended that magnetic particle inspection using the dc method...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... The hammerhead material was UNS G10800 (AISI/SAE grade 1080). Excessive hardnesses were measured in the first 3 mm (0. 12 in.) below the striking surface, indicating that there was lack of control during the final tempering operation. Hammers Impact 1080 UNS G10800 Brittle fracture Heat treating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0046242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... in the gear teeth (found at visual inspection) was composed of the same material as the metal in the coupling. Beach marks and evidence of cold work, typical of fatigue failure, were found on the fracture surface. Chips remaining in the analysis cut were difficult to remove, indicating a strong magnetic field...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... at the mid-length of the sides. Brinell hardness values confirmed that the link was made from the higher tensile grade of material. The cracks were due to fatigue, there being no indications that the weld was initially defective. Butt welds Chains Steel chain Fatigue fracture The following case...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c0046238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... of the inspection procedures disclosed that the pins had been magnetic-particle inspected by inserting a probe into the longitudinal hole. Therefore, it was assumed that arc burning occurred during magnetic-particle inspection as a result of electric arcing between the probe and the knuckle-pin material. Cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Background and Summary Design and Material Requirements Chemical Analysis and Magnetic Response Room Temperature Tensile and Hardness Tests Elevated Temperature Tensile Tests Creep Testing Microstructure Discussion Summary References References 1. Peckner D...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
.... With this instrument, a completely nonmagnetic substance is given a rating of 10, and a magnetic material, such as plain carbon steel, is assigned a rating of 0. Specimens cut from the link were tested for magnetism after various heat treatments with the following results: Micrographs of specimens from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001496
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... Markings Physical Appearance of Pinion Physical Appearance of Gear Magnetic-Particle Inspection Nital Etching A decision must now be made as to which, if any, of the metallurgical tests are to be made. Although the cause of failure may be apparent at this time, some doubt would remain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... inventory and the field were tested by magnetic particle inspection. One inventory bolt failed because of a transverse crack near the head-to-shank radius. It was deduced that either a 100% magnetic particle inspection had not been conducted during bolt manufacturing, or the crack went undetected during...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Several heavy truck Cr-Mo steel steering arms in service less than three years fractured during stationary or low-speed turning maneuvers that required power-assisted steering. Metallographic examination of the cracked AISI 4135 arms, heat treated to a hardness of 285 to 341...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001072
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... near the outer diameter. The cracks nucleated in the badly pitted and corroded areas. Disk and cover materials were quantitatively analyzed and found to be within the chemical limits prescribed by ASTMA-294. Hardness The disk and cover material were to be heat treated to a minimum ultimate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001497
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
...Abstract Abstract A spiral bevel gear set in the differential housing of a large front-end loader moving coal in a storage area failed in service. The machine had operated approximately 1500 h. Although the failure involved only the pinion teeth, magnetic particle inspection was performed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047856
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract The master connecting rod of a reciprocating aircraft engine revealed cracks during routine inspection. The rods were forged from 4337 (AMS 6412) steel and heat treated to a specified hardness of 36 to 40 HRC. H-shaped cracks in the wall between the knuckle-pin flanges were...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0009222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on a production line. Only the actual cutting surface has full hardness, and the remainder of the tool, including the abrupt section change, is softer. Experience is widely called on in choosing a tool material. Selection always involves some compromise—the most important is wear resistance versus toughness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... pipe (the current specification is API 5CT). NACE Standard MR0175, “Material Requirements for Sulfide Stress Cracking Resistant Metallic Materials for Oilfield Equipment,” gives blanket approval to the use of API 5A grade J-55 pipe, regardless of manufacturing method, as long as its hardness does...