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hand lay-up

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
..., color-coded orange, was slightly over four feet long and included the final rope break. The core and middle layer were recovered intact; five of the original 12 outside strands were separately recovered. Because of the desire to study the mechanism leading up to the failure of the rope, the area...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... or right flange attachment, the standard right-lay rope construction can be used. Only in special applications should a change to left-lay rope be considered. One instance would be when opposite rotation of the rope might help prevent open winding, or a piling up at the flange under adverse fleet-angle...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... two layers or more with thicknesses varying from at least 100 mm (4 in.) up to 500 mm (20 in.) or more. Refractories are either shaped materials (bricks and various other formats, including lances, tubes, nozzles, and so forth) or unshaped or monolithic materials (delivered to the users in bags, sacks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to hydrogen attack. Original magnification: 400× Fig. 27 Close-up view of tube at failure location showing rectangular window-type rupture with thick lips Fig. 28 Photograph of failed tube sample having window-type rupture with thick lips and uneven contours Fig. 29 Close-up view...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003502
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... failure itself. The design process that led up to the physical failure is of great importance when trying to get back to the root cause because it is during the design process that all the original contributing factors are brought together to create the components that are assembled into the complete...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... sizes and weights, from 2 to 8 lb, are thawed out and shot at speeds up to 400 mph into a jet engine running on a test stand to determine if the engine stays within its nacelle. One day, a new technician was running the test, and apparently no one told him to thaw the frozen fowl before using...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... product results. The internal cavities in the rimming steel ingot have an unoxidised surface and mostly weld-up during the subsequent hot rolling of the ingot. The essential differences between an ingot of rimming steel and one of killed steel are shown in the sketch, Fig. 1 . The presence...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) Scabs are caused by splashing liquid metal in the mold. (e) Pits and blisters caused by gaseous pockets in the ingot. (f) Embedded scale from excessive scaling during prior heating operations. (g) Cracks with little or no oxide present on their edges when the metal cools in the mold, setting up highly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... being opined upon. Staying up to date with the scientific literature in one’s field is a challenge faced by all engineers; there is more new research being published every day than it is possible to read. If the engineer is unfamiliar with research on a specific topic, it is acceptable to conduct...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in steam demand, composition of fuel, amount of excess combustion air, type and amount of water-conditioning chemicals added, type and amount of contaminants in condensate and make-up feedwater, frequency and methods of cleaning fire-side and water-side surfaces of steam generators, materials specified...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at magnifications from 1 to 50 or 100×, it may be conducted by the unaided eye, a hand lens or magnifier, a low-power stereoscopic microscope, or a SEM. Macroscopic photography of up to 20× magnification requires a high-quality camera and special lenses; alternatively, a large magnifying glass may be used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... MANUFACTURING (AM) refers to a group of free-form fabrication technologies that incrementally build up a solid part by computer-controlled deposition of material from a digital solid model. The technology is an outgrowth and broadening of rapid prototyping methods that were developed in the 1980s to accelerate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is completed and put into operation. Under such circumstances, the heat exchangers should be adequately protected from the corrosion that might occur before start-up. Wet lay-up using a suitably buffered or inhibited solution can be used to retard corrosion. Another method is to keep the heat exchanger dry...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or nonreactive gases, such as helium or nitrogen, in order to avoid unacceptable corrosion. Wet lay-up using deoxygenated water or the continuous circulation of demineralized deoxygenated water can also be used to minimize corrosion. Recordkeeping during such periods is as important as record-keeping during...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
....2009.08.029 128. Ming H. , Liu X. , Yan H. , Zhang Z. , Wang J. , Gao L. , Lai J. , and Han E.H. , Understanding the Microstructure Evolution of Ni-Based Superalloy within Two Different Fretting Wear Regimes in High Temperature High Pressure Water , Scr. Mater...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to resist stress at elevated temperatures over time. While it is often the controlling damage mechanism, operating environments may lead to the introduction of additional damage mechanisms that could end up controlling the service life of the components either by themselves or from interactions with creep...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the diameter across which the relief occurs. If the tilt is not great enough to take up all the clearance, there will be no ball path on the upper (nonloaded) half of the outer raceway. Figure 2(d) shows a bearing whose inner ring was tilted or out of square with respect to the axis of rotation. Again...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... (circumferential crack between fins). Dimension given in inches. (b) Branched transgranular cracking propagating from major crack. Original magnification: 45× Fig. 12 Carbon steel discharge line at a cooling tower that failed because of poor fit-up at Y-joint and poor-quality welds. (a) Original joint...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-up using deoxygenated water or the continuous circulation of demineralized deoxygenated water can also be used to minimize corrosion in some equipment. Record-keeping during such periods is as important as record-keeping during operating periods. Unanticipated effects resulting from the design...