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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
...Abstract Abstract The cause of fracture of two piston rods of hammers of a drop forge was determined. The first rod of 180 mm diam consisted of an unalloyed steel with 0.37% C and 0.67% Mn and had a strength of 56 kp/sq mm at 26% elongation. Fatigue fractures propagated from several points...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract A carbon steel ball-peen hammer ejected a chip that struck the user's eye. Failure occurred when two hammers were struck together during an attempt to free a universal joint from an automotive drive shaft. Two samples were cut from the face of the hammer one through...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A sledge hammer chipped during use. The chip struck a by stander in the eye, leading to its loss. The hammerhead surface was examined visually, nondestructively (magnetic particle method), and stereo microscopically, and a microstructural analysis of a cross section...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... examination revealed evidence of severe hammer blows to the clevis and boss areas and a gap between the die and the underside of the boss. Magnetic particle inspection showed cracks at the thread roots that, when examined metallographically, were found to contain MnS stringers. The cracking of the threads...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in the joint area, a possible stress raiser at the intersection of the spiral weld and girth weld, and sudden impact loading, probably due to water hammer. Use of a semi- or fully killed steel with a minimum Charpy V-notch impact value of 20 J (15 ft·lbf) at 0 deg C (32 deg F) was recommended for future water...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Fig. 19 Schematic diagram of a typical indentation formed in a ceramic coating under repetitive impact loading showing different failure zones. Source: Ref 35 Fig. 20 Ballistic impact wear tester. Source: Ref 22 Fig. 21 Pivotal hammer impact tester. Source: Ref 41...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001262
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
...Abstract Abstract A chain link which was part of the hoisting mechanism of a drop hammer broke after three or four months of service. It was reportedly manufactured of the heat resistant steel 30 Cr-Mo-V 9 (Material No. 1.7707). The fracture of the chain link had a conchoidal structure and ran...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... deposits. The fourth was severely hammered. It was concluded that the high temperatures developed in this engine created an environment too severe for 357 aluminum. Surfaces were so hot that the low-melting constituent melted. Then, the alloy oxidized rapidly to form Al2O3, an abrasive which further...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... was broken off with hammer blows. The fracture surface was duplex in nature, there being an annular region surrounding a central zone, which suggests that the fracture developed in two stages. Microscopic examination confirmed that the fracture was of the brittle type. The shaft material showed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Hammers 0.5–0.6C-0.5–0.9Mn-0.1–0.4Si 0.2–0.3Cr for head mass > 1.8 kg (4 lb) Striking face: 50–58 3 mm below striking face: 46 Normalized steel block Same steel as hammer Six blows to periphery of face GGG-H-86C-1963 Hammers 0.46–0.85C-0.2–0.9Mn-0.1–3Si Double-face hammer: 44–55 Carpenter's...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001376
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... sides, resulting in separation into two halves. Hammers Railroads 9260 UNS G92600 Brittle fracture Background Visual Examination of General Physical Features Testing Procedure and Results Discussion and Conclusions Selected References Selected References • Becker W.T...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
..., and these revealed a considerable difference in hardness between the core material and that near the surface, the respective values being 125 and 192. The manner in which the link failed was suggestive of embrittlement due to service conditions. This state arises from the inter-link hammering and rubbing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...-shape parts. A steel billet is heated to forging temperature (1100 to 1260 °C, or 2000 to 2300 °F) and placed into successive performs in the bottom impression of the die. The upper die is then dropped or propelled downward onto the bottom impression. This hammering forces the hot metal to flow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 333 – 340 10.1520/JTE11402J 20. Studman C.J. and Field F.E. , A Repeated Impact Testing Machine , Wear , Vol 41 , 1977 , p 373 – 381 10.1016/0043-1648(77)90015-1 21. Sare I.R. , Repeated Impact-Abrasion of Ore-Crushing Hammers , Wear , Vol 87 , 1983 , p 202...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
.... The above series of tests was carried out five days after shearing and, in order to check if natural ageing was a further factor in promoting brittleness, additional specimens were work-hardened on one sawn edge by hammer blows and others impressed with a notch formed by forcing into the specimen a 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... tearing developing at the bottom of it. The results of these tests were not indicative of any brittleness of the material. To ascertain if the rate of load application was a significant factor, further tests were carried out in which the specimen was clamped in a vice and bent by blows from a hammer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... pronounced grain boundary disruption was heated to a temperature of 850° C. and hot-forged by hammering, three stages of heating and hammering being employed. Three bend test specimens were prepared. The first was cut from the unforged portion of the head and this broke immediately an attempt was made...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001348
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., there was a pit from which two cracks originated. These tanks were fabricated by cold-forming operations without any final stress-relieving treatment. From the appearance of bulges at the dished ends, it was inferred that severe hammering could have been resorted to in the fit-up operations before welding...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... was continued to an angle of 180°, still without cracks developing. The second was severely hammered on one face and then bent with the hammered face in tension. It deformed to an angle of 90° without cracking; it was then heated to a temperature of 250° C. for one hour and cracked immediately it was loaded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... broke off in serve at the junction with the end rings, as seen in Figure 16 . 9 The oxidised fracture surfaces marked A, had a hammered appearance and the exposed crack surfaces B were oxidised. The uncracked bar marked C was also broken off. Other bars in the same position showed incipient cracks...