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hammer forging

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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 37 Failure caused by a forging lap in a sledge-hammer head. (a) Cracks on the striking face soon after the hammer was first used. (b) A hot alkaline chromate etch revealed oxygen enrichment (white region) adjacent to the crack. 65× More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... Abstract The cause of fracture of two piston rods of hammers of a drop forge was determined. The first rod of 180 mm diam consisted of an unalloyed steel with 0.37% C and 0.67% Mn and had a strength of 56 kp/sq mm at 26% elongation. Fatigue fractures propagated from several points which could...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001262
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... that the real damage was done during the heat-up forging (drop-forging) and could not be removed during heat-treatment. Chains Cracking (fracturing) Drop forgings Overheating 30CrMoV 9 Metalworking-related failures A chain link which was part of the hoisting mechanism of a drop hammer broke...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... A poor heating practice can cause excessive scale, decarburization, hot tears, and burning. Excessive scale, in addition to causing excessive metal loss, can result in forgings with heavily pitted surfaces. The pitted surfaces are caused by the scale being hammered into the surface and may result...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... The upper die is then dropped or propelled downward onto the bottom impression. This hammering forces the hot metal to flow and conform to the die impression. The finishing impression is generally the censer section of the die. It is used to produce the final shape before trimming. Closed-die forgings can...
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 37 Failure caused by a forging lap in a sledgehammer head. (a) Cracks on the striking face soon after the hammer was first used. (b) A hot alkaline chromate etch revealed oxygen enrichment (white region) adjacent to the crack. Original magnification: 65× More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... from wrought-iron, forge welded in the usual manner, and that it was not electrically-welded steel as had been supposed. Failure was attributed to embrittlement in service of the surface material of the links. If it had been realized that the sling was made from wrought-iron then it would doubtless...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... protection warning, which was not present on either the head or handle of the hammer. References References 1. “Heavy Striking Tools—Safety Requirements,” ANSI/HTI B 273.3- 1985 , American National Standards Institute . 2. “Hammer, Hand (Forged Steel Head),” Federal Specification GGG-H-86c...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... if the temperature of the blank is below about 1149 °C (2100 °F). Such blanks are also set aside, but can be re-inserted into the heating line after cooling. This forging was made in two steps. After the blank left the induction coil, it dropped through a chute and an operator placed it in a hammer forge...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... pronounced grain boundary disruption was heated to a temperature of 850° C. and hot-forged by hammering, three stages of heating and hammering being employed. Three bend test specimens were prepared. The first was cut from the unforged portion of the head and this broke immediately an attempt was made...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
.... The fourth was severely hammered. It was concluded that the high temperatures developed in this engine created an environment too severe for 357 aluminum. Surfaces were so hot that the low-melting constituent melted. Then, the alloy oxidized rapidly to form Al2O3, an abrasive which further aggravated...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and triple tempering is required for the more highly alloyed grades to stabilize the microstructure. Quench Cracking Numerous heat-treatment problems can promote quench cracking. Figure 13(a) shows a 41-mm (1 5 8 -in.) square, 1.4-kg (3-lb) AISI S5 tool steel sledge-hammer head that cracked...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... was there any indication of a pre-existing crack or major discontinuity at the point of origin. A sulfur print suggested the hook had been forged from a billet cogged down from an ingot of semi-killed steel. Failure of this hook was attributed to strain-age embrittlement of the material at the surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The article provides a discussion on the imperfections found in steel forgings. The problems encountered in sheet metal forming are also discussed. The article concludes with information on the causes of failure in cold formed parts. anisotropy blisters centerline shrinkage chemical segregation cold...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
...° to give a partially crystalline fracture. A further notched piece, broken in a vice by means of hammer blows, gave a similar result. The latter tests indicated that the material was notch-brittle and, in order to provide a quantitative assessment of this aspect, Charpy test pieces were prepared...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-quenching grades such as S5 (oil quenched), due to differential surface stresses. A deep stamp mark also helped promote cracking. Fig. 13 (a) AISI S5 tool steel hammer head that cracked during heat treatment. The fracture was caused by quench cracking that was promoted by the decarburized surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... frequently for testing very large specimens such as forged steel or wrought alloy steel rolls. In this procedure, a diamond-tipped hammer is dropped from a fixed height onto the surface of the material being tested. The height of rebound of the hammer is a measure of the hardness of the metal. Leeb...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... material, the affected portion of the loop included a 90° elbow and an adjacent 15° elbow (or wedge), both forged of type 304 stainless steel. The weld filler metal was type 308 stainless steel in all cases. A pressure test of the reactor pressure vessel conducted approximately 8 years after the plant...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001636
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... (RNLN) Lynx helicopter lost a rotor blade during preparation for take-off. The blade loss was due to failure of a rotor hub arm. Figure 1 shows the failure schematically. It occurred in the “yellow” arm of the rotor hub, a monolithic Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy forging, across an elliptical plain section...