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hammer forging

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
...Abstract Abstract The cause of fracture of two piston rods of hammers of a drop forge was determined. The first rod of 180 mm diam consisted of an unalloyed steel with 0.37% C and 0.67% Mn and had a strength of 56 kp/sq mm at 26% elongation. Fatigue fractures propagated from several points...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001262
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
...Abstract Abstract A chain link which was part of the hoisting mechanism of a drop hammer broke after three or four months of service. It was reportedly manufactured of the heat resistant steel 30 Cr-Mo-V 9 (Material No. 1.7707). The fracture of the chain link had a conchoidal structure and ran...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... cause excessive scale, decarburization, hot tears, and burning. Excessive scale, in addition to causing excessive metal loss, can result in forgings with heavily pitted surfaces. The pitted surfaces are caused by the scale being hammered into the surface and may result in unacceptable forgings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... if the temperature of the blank is below about 1149 °C (2100 °F). Such blanks are also set aside, but can be re-inserted into the heating line after cooling. This forging was made in two steps. After the blank left the induction coil, it dropped through a chute and an operator placed it in a hammer forge...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...-shape parts. A steel billet is heated to forging temperature (1100 to 1260 °C, or 2000 to 2300 °F) and placed into successive performs in the bottom impression of the die. The upper die is then dropped or propelled downward onto the bottom impression. This hammering forces the hot metal to flow...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Standards Institute . 2. “Hammer, Hand (Forged Steel Head),” Federal Specification GGG-H-86c, 8 March 1963 . 3. Cotterell B. , Kamminga J. , and Dickson F.P. , The Essential Mechanics of Conchoidal Flaking , Int. J. Fract. Vol 29 , 1985 , p 205 – 221 . 4. Burn...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... been made from wrought-iron, forge welded in the usual manner, and that it was not electrically-welded steel as had been supposed. Failure was attributed to embrittlement in service of the surface material of the links. If it had been realized that the sling was made from wrought-iron then it would...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... pronounced grain boundary disruption was heated to a temperature of 850° C. and hot-forged by hammering, three stages of heating and hammering being employed. Three bend test specimens were prepared. The first was cut from the unforged portion of the head and this broke immediately an attempt was made...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and triple tempering is required for the more highly alloyed grades to stabilize the microstructure. Quench Cracking Numerous heat-treatment problems can promote quench cracking. Figure 13(a) shows a 41-mm (1 5 8 -in.) square, 1.4-kg (3-lb) AISI S5 tool steel sledge-hammer head that cracked...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... was there any indication of a pre-existing crack or major discontinuity at the point of origin. A sulfur print suggested the hook had been forged from a billet cogged down from an ingot of semi-killed steel. Failure of this hook was attributed to strain-age embrittlement of the material at the surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... deposits. The fourth was severely hammered. It was concluded that the high temperatures developed in this engine created an environment too severe for 357 aluminum. Surfaces were so hot that the low-melting constituent melted. Then, the alloy oxidized rapidly to form Al2O3, an abrasive which further...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... on, these three orientations are longitudinal, long transverse, and short transverse. For other manufacturing operations such as die forgings, castings, and additive manufacturing, the mechanical property dependency on location and orientation can be even more complex. Therefore, it is important that any...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
...° to give a partially crystalline fracture. A further notched piece, broken in a vice by means of hammer blows, gave a similar result. The latter tests indicated that the material was notch-brittle and, in order to provide a quantitative assessment of this aspect, Charpy test pieces were prepared...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... by a forging lap in a sledgehammer head. (a) Cracks on the striking face soon after the hammer was first used. (b) A hot alkaline chromate etch revealed oxygen enrichment (white region) adjacent to the crack. Original magnification: 65× Fig. 38 Die made from AISI O1 tool steel that was found...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and scabs. The article provides a discussion on the imperfections found in steel forgings. The problems encountered in sheet metal forming are also discussed. The article concludes with information on the causes of failure in cold formed parts. anisotropy blisters centerline shrinkage chemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to 260 °C (400 to 500 °F) and a pressure of 6.9 MPa (1000 psi). In addition to wrought type 304 stainless steel piping material, the affected portion of the loop included a 90° elbow and an adjacent 15° elbow (or wedge), both forged of type 304 stainless steel. The weld filler metal was type 308...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001636
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... : “Fractographic and Microstructural Analysis of Fatigue Crack Growth in Ti-6Al-4V Fan Disc Forgings,” AGARD Report 766 (Addendum), Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, April 1993 , pp. 2.1 – 2.40 . 10. Newman J.C. Jr. : “A Crack-Closure Model...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... would be zones of contraflexure. The fact that the centre seams were hand -riveted doubtless played a contributory part. Another factor which probably had a bearing on the seam leakage trouble as well as the subsequent cracking was vibration from nearby forging hammers, which would tend to disturb...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2