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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0091853
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... the conclusion that the primary feed material was harder than the grinding plates, causing wear and eventual failure. Recommendations included reducing the clearance between the flutes and possible material changes. Grinding wheels, Materials substitution Milling Gray iron Abrasive wear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... hardening. Redesign was recommended to include reinforcing the backing web of the tip, increasing the radius at the relief step to 1.5 x 0.5 mm (0.06 x 0.02 in.), the use of proper grinding techniques, and a requirement that the hardened zone extend a minimum of 1.5 mm (0.06 in.) beyond the step...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract The spindle of a helicopter-rotor blade fractured after 7383 h of flight service. At every overhaul (the spindle that failed was overhauled six times and reworked twice), any spindle that showed wear was reworked by grinding the shank to 0.1 mm (0.004 in.) under the finished...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... investigation revealed that the cracking was caused by the combination of incorrect grinding procedure, the presence of hydrogen, and fatigue. The grinding damage generated tensile stresses in the steel, which caused intergranular cracking during the plating cycle. The intergranular cracks were initiation sites...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... investigation revealed that fused material from the blade had been thrown onto the cold blade surface during a grinding operation to remove the targeting bosses from the forgings, thereby causing local embrittlement. It was recommended that extreme care be taken during grinding operations to prevent the hot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and pearlite. It was established that the incipient cracks found in liquid-penetrant inspection had originated at the surface in the banded region, in areas of ferrite where this constituent had been visibly deformed by grinding. Closer control on the microstructure, hardness of the forgings and smooth finish...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... that this imperfection, although small, initiated fracture because of the local geometry and stress conditions and the low toughness of the steel. It was recommended that (1) the probability of flaws be reduced by welding over or grinding out arc strikes, (2) the local stresses be lowered by post weld stress relief...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0009222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the six fundamental factors that decide a tool's performance. These are mechanical design, grade of tool steel, machining procedure, heat treatment, grinding, and handling. A deficiency in any one of the factors can lead to a tool and die failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... with successive cycles. Fig. 1 Transverse failure origin in a valve spring made from ground rod. The transverse marks (arrow) are remnants of the grinding operation. 8× Recommendations Recommendations involved altering the shot-peening procedure to create adequate surface compression at all...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article provides a discussion on the metallographic techniques used for failure analysis, and on fracture examination in materials, with illustrations. It discusses various metallographic specimen preparation techniques, namely, sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... examination can be performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) over the same magnification range as the LM, but examination with the latter is more efficient. This article describes the major operations in the preparation of metallographic specimens, namely sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... The findings of this study led to the conclusion that the impeller failed by fatigue that initiated at casting defects exposed to the surface by grinding. Based on these findings, the following recommendations were made: The casting process should be revised to eliminate formation of internal shrinkage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... or replacement, was recommended to prevent chloride buildup. Painting of the steel surface with an epoxy-phenolic or epoxy-coal tar was also suggested. Chemical processing industry Columns (process) Marine environments 316 UNS S31600 Stress-corrosion cracking Pitting corrosion Background Visual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... had advanced on many “mini-fronts,” also indicative of nonuniform loading such as rotating bending. It was recommended that a support be added at the inside end of the nozzles to rigidly connect with the shell. In addition to avoiding transport problems, this design modification would reduce fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.../asm.hb.v16.a0002120 4. Natchman E.S. , Metal Cutting and Grinding Operations , Machining , Vol 16 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1989 , p 126 – 127 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002128 5. Weindel H.F. , Tool. Prod. , Nov 1981 6. Finn M.E. , Machining of Carbon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... did not occur during the sintering thermal cycle. It was recommended that the prosthetic manufacturer investigate atmosphere controls for all thermal cycles prior to coating. Adhesion Bonding strength Interface reactions Powder coating Surgical implants ASTM F75 UNS R30075 Surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in cold-working and hot-working applications. It reviews problems introduced during mechanical design, materials selection, machining, heat treating, finish grinding, and tool and die operation. The brittle fracture of rehardened high-speed steels is also considered. Finally, failures due to seams or laps...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... 10 Grinding cracks caused by failure to temper a part. (a) Two dies made from AISI D2 tool steel that cracked after finish grinding (cracks accentuated with magnetic particles). (b) Macroetching (10% aqueous nitric acid) of the end faces revealed grinding scorch. These dies were not tempered after...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... This combination of factors resulted in failure by stress-corrosion cracking. Implementation of a new repair procedure was recommended. Repairs were successfully made using the new procedure, and all cracks in the weld repair zones were eliminated. Domes Heat-affected zone Nuclear reactor components...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... = 2 h. (b) Assume t = ∞. The following are recommendations with respect to the tempering process ( Ref 4 ): Generally, the higher the tempering temperature, the greater the resulting ductility and toughness. However, this is at the expense of strength and hardness. High-carbon steels...