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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0047813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract After being in service for ten years the ball-and-race coal pulverizer was investigated after noises were noted in it. Its lower grinding ring was attached to the 6150 normalized steel outer main shaft while the upper grinding ring was suspended by springs from a spider...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract Inner rings of spherical roller bearings out of full hardening ball bearing steel 100 CrMn 6 (Fe-1C-1.5Cr-1.1Mn, Material No. 1.3520) failed in service. Due to the cracks, parts from the middle flange broke or the rings failed in radial direction completely. All the cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
....a0003544 The pulverizer, which is of the ball and race type ( Fig. 1 ), has one revolving and one stationary ring, between which are a set of grinding balls rolling in a horizontal plane. Force is applied through the stationary top ring (supported from the housing but free to move up and down...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Fig. 2 Ball mill liner plates. (a) New condition, before installation. (b) Worn condition, with partially worn grinding belt Fig. 3 Worn cone crusher liner after three months of use Fig. 8 Streamlines for water in pipe of variable diameter. Source: Ref 24 Fig. 1...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... , Wear , Vol 185 , 1995 , p 17 – 22 10.1016/0043-1648(94)06586-1 35. Zheng Y.-K. and Yang Y.-Y. , Wear Characteristics of Large Grinding Balls in an SAG Mill , Tribol. Trans. , Vol 40 , 1997 , p 720 – 724 10.1080/10402009708983714 36. Xu L. , Clough S...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... , The Failure Models Induced by White Layers during Impact Wear , Wear , Vol 185 , 1995 , p 17 – 22 10.1016/0043-1648(94)06586-1 35. Zheng Y.-K. and Yang Y.-Y. , Wear Characteristics of Large Grinding Balls in an SAG Mill , Tribol. Trans. , Vol 40 , 1997 , p 720 – 724 10.1080...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... surfaces) on which microscopic grinding scratches have been smoothed out. No appreciable amount of material has been removed from the surface of the raceways or balls, as indicated by the fact that there is no measurable decrease in the diameter of the balls, although the entire surface has been dulled...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Repeated failures of high-pressure ball valves were reported in a chemical plant. The ball valves were made of AFNOR Z30C13 martensitic stainless steel. Initial examination of the valves showed that failure occurred in a weld at the ball/stem junction end of austenitic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... functions: (1) rough and fine grinding, (2) coarse and final polishing, (3) etching, (4) microscopic examination; and, (5) documentation of observed microstructural characteristics. The equipment and consumables chosen for the on-site nondestructive metallographic analysis of the titanium weldment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to the grinding direction (●), using sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride counterfaces and NBD-200 silicon nitride balls. Source: Ref 46 It can also be seen that grinding results in compressive residual stresses that are typically larger in magnitude in the direction perpendicular to the grinding...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with a NBD-200 silicon nitride ball. Source: Ref 33 Fig. 18 Impact crater area vs. compressive residual stress for impacts normal to the lay and compressive stresses perpendicular to the grinding direction (○), and for impacts perpendicular to the lay and compressive stresses parallel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... suspensions 27 6 120–150 Contra 2 (a) PSA, pressure-sensitive adhesive. (b) Comp, complementary (platen and specimen holder both rotate in the same direction). Contra, platen and specimen holder rotate in opposite directions Four-step contemporary practice for steels using a rigid grinding...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... relative motion that is usually produced by vibration. There are exceptions, however, such as contact between balls and raceways in bearings and between mating surfaces in oscillating bearings and flexible couplings. Fretting Wear In general, fretting occurs between two tightly fitting surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... hammer: 50–60 Ball-peen hammer: 50–57 <60 cm (25 in.) handle: 92–105 HRB >60 cm (25 in.) handle: 40–45 HRC ANSI B209.3-1990 Wood splitting wedges Carbon steel (ASTM A29, A576, A681) 35 max Drop-weight test, 4.5 kg (10 lb) from 1.5 m (5 ft) ANSI B209.1-1991 Chisels Carbon or alloy steel...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for the RCF of a homogeneous material surface. Fig. 1 Typical morphology of fatigue spall in rolling-element bearings. (a) Fatigue spall centered on a ball bearing raceway. (b) Fatigue spall on 12.7 mm (0.5 in.) diameter steel ball obtained using rolling four-ball machine Prediction...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Guidelines for semiautomatic preparation of structural ceramics Table 3 Guidelines for semiautomatic preparation of structural ceramics Step Base Diamond grade, μm Lubricant Speed, rpm Pressure, N Time, min Grinding Diamond disc 65 Water 300 ≈180 Until flat Diamond disc 20...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Guidelines for semiautomatic preparation of structural ceramics Table 3 Guidelines for semiautomatic preparation of structural ceramics Step Base Diamond grade, μm Lubricant Speed, rpm Pressure Time, min N 16f Grinding Diamond disc 65 Water 300 ∼180 ∼40 Until flat Diamond...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... grinding damage, machining marks or nicks, and quench cracks resulting from heat treating operations. Frequently, stress concentrators are introduced during hot or cold forming of shafts; these include surface discontinuities, such as laps, seams, pits and forging laps, and internal imperfections...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the microstructure through optical and scanning electron microscopy. Sample grinding was conducted with silicone carbide pads, from 240 through 1200 grit. Polishing was done with 1, 0.3, and 0.05 μm alumina powders, along with 4 and 1 μm diamond pastes. The sample was cleaned in ethanol for 2 min in between each...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001661
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... accepted by the dye penetrant test (PT) examinations. The slightly subsurface detection capabilities of the MT procedure provides a more effective examination of as-ground surface that PT, due to the possibility of metal being smeared over the discontinuity by the grinding process. Fig. 4 Procedure...