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graphitizing annealing

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
...) Eliminate the grooves; 2) Remove the ferritic bright border; 3) Avoid undercooling in the mold and therefore the formation of granular graphite; 4) Inoculate with finely powdered ferrosilicon into the melt for the same purpose; and, 5) Anneal at lower temperature or eliminate subsequent treatment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
...Abstract Abstract An experimental high-temperature rotary valve was found stuck due to growth and distortion after approximately 100 h. Gas temperatures were suspected to have been high due to overfueled conditions. Both the rotor and housing in which it was stuck were annealed ferritic ductile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... F 85 12.3 97 14.1 51.5 36.0 G 88 12.8 99 14.4 40.5 32.5 (a) All irons subcritically annealed at 790 °C (1450 °F). Iron B, 0.2% Mo; Iron C, 0.49% Mo; Iron D, 0.98% Mo; Iron E, 1.45% Mo; Iron F, 1.93% Mo; Iron G, 2.50% Mo Compositions of flake graphite (gray) austenitic cast...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of creep cracking and creep void formation at the fissure. A nearly continuous band of graphite nodules was observed on the surface of the fissure. In addition to the graphite band formation, the microstructure near the failure exhibited carbide spheroidization from long-term overheating in all the tube...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... images of dimple-rupture fractures. (a) Fracture of low-alloy medium-carbon steel bolt (SAE grade 5). Original magnification: 1750×. (b) Equiaxed tensile dimples originating around the graphite nodules of ASTM 60-45-10 ductile iron. Original magnification: 350×. (c) Parabolic shear dimples in cast Ti-6Al...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are used Blacking scab, wash scab D 240: Oxides adhering after heat treatment (annealing, tempering, malleablizing) by decarburization D 241 Adherence of oxide after annealing Oxide scale D 242 Adherence of ore after malleablizing (white heart malleable Adherent packing material...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by cleavage in second-phase (silicon) particles and other second phases. Fig. 1 SEM images of dimple-rupture fractures. (a) Fracture of low-alloy medium-carbon steel bolt (SAE grade 5). 1750×. (b) Equiaxed tensile dimples originating around the graphite nodules of ASTM 60-45-10 ductile iron. 350×. (c...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... specified to a 5 mm (0.20 in.) radius, except the failed fillet, which was specified to a 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) radius. The cast brake disc was specified to be an ASTM A395 60-40-18 ductile iron casting with a subsequent anneal heat treatment. A mostly ferritic microstructure with no massive carbides...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0047312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2002 , p 671 – 699 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543 Examination by light fractography ( Fig. 2 ) revealed the presence of graphite nodules, indicating the probability that the component was manufactured from a ductile cast iron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... diffraction analysis showed that the carbides were primarily chromium based (Cr 23 C 7 and Cr 7 C 3 ). The sooty substance was identified as graphite. Wasted areas were ferromagnetic and the degree of ferromagnetism was directly related to the degree of wastage. Three actions were recommended: (1) inspection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0047312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2002 , p 671 – 699 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543 Examination by light fractography ( Fig. 2 ) revealed the presence of graphite nodules, indicating the probability that the component was manufactured from a ductile cast...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001711
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... and 540 °C. In these conditions, the decomposition of cementite yields graphite, which reduces tensile strength. This effect is a faster strength reduction due to the globulization of carbides. Therefore, steels must include alloying elements with strong carbide-forming properties in order to prevent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... region of bolt in X10 CrNiTi 18 9 that failed by stress corrosion cracking. 8 × Fig. 8 Unetched micro-section of a cracked pump casing of austenitic spheroidal graphite cast iron. 100 × Fig. 9 Scanning electron micrograph of a fracture face from the bolt in Fig. 7 . 400 × Fig...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... dealuminification denickelification desiliconification dezincification galvanic corrosion graphitic corrosion intergranular corrosion pitting corrosion selective leaching uniform corrosion velocity-affected corrosion CORROSION is the electrochemical reaction of a material and its environment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... recognized is the influence of nonmetallic conductors as cathodes in galvanic couples. Carbon brick in vessels is strongly cathodic to the common structural metals and alloys. Impervious graphite, especially in heat-exchanger applications, is cathodic to the less noble metals and alloys. Carbon-filled...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on tempering of normalized 2 1 4 Cr-1Mo steel. Source: Ref 12 Fig. 15 Effect of elevated-temperature exposure on stress-rupture behavior of (a) normalized and tempered 2Cr-1Mo steel and (b) annealed 9Cr-1Mo steel. Exposure prior to stress-rupture testing was at the indicated test...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-temperature exposure on stress-rupture behavior of (a) normalized and tempered 2Cr-1Mo steel and (b) annealed 9Cr-1Mo steel. Exposure prior to stress-rupture testing was at the indicated test temperatures (without stress) and was 10,000 h long for the 2Cr-1Mo steel and 100,000 h long for the 9Cr-1Mo steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of the hard phase to improve the machinability. Modifying the cementite in the pearlite by transforming the cementite lamellae into spheroids by spheroidizing or increasing the pearlite spacing by annealing heat treatments increases the machinability ( Ref 21 ). Strontium, sodium, antimony, or calcium can...