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graphitization

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Metallographic examination revealed creep voids near the rupture in addition to graphite nodules. Exposure of the SA209 Grade T1A steel tubing to a calculated mean operating temperature of 530 deg C (983 deg F) for the 13 years resulted in graphitization and subsequent creep failure in Tube 3. The deformation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... cracking and creep void formation at the fissure. A nearly continuous band of graphite nodules was observed on the surface of the fissure. In addition to the graphite band formation, the microstructure near the failure exhibited carbide spheroidization from long-term overheating in all the tube regions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract Graphitization, the formation of graphite nodules in carbon and low alloy steels, contributes to many failures in high-temperature environments. Three such failures in power-generating systems were analyzed to demonstrate the unpredictable nature of this failure mechanism and its...
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 38 According to these curves, graphitization is the usual mode of pearlite decomposition at temperatures below approximately 550 °C (1025 °F). Spheroidization can be expected to predominate at higher temperatures More
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 2 Stages of graphitization of a medium carbon steel aged at constant temperature, showing the effect of temperature during aging More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091384
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... resulting in graphitic corrosion. Soils containing sulfates are particularly aggressive. Recommendations included pipe replacement. The wall thickness had been sufficiently reduced that the pipe could no longer support the required load. Water mains are designed for more than 100 years life. Ductile iron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048498
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A graphite-epoxy tapered-box structure, which consisted of two honeycomb skin panels fastened to a spanwise spar with intermediate chordwise ribs, fractured during testing. Hinge-line deflection of the front spar was revealed. Through-thickness cracks in the forward and trailing edges...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0089657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... as a means of absorbing recoil energy. During operation, the piston is stressed in tension, pulled by oil pressure on one end and the opposing force of the gun tube on the other. The casting specification stipulated that the graphite be substantially nodular and that metallographic test results be provided...
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 1 A graphitized medium carbon steel; ( a ) graphite nodule in pearlite, with uniform distribution of cementite particles in pearlite around it; ( b ) same steel overaged—complete graphitization and phases present are ferrite and graphite only More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0047335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... at the hole area showed that the porosity extended a considerable distance into the pipe wall. Metallographic examination revealed a graphite structure distribution expected in centrifugally cast iron with a hypoeutectic carbon equivalent. Chemical analyses of a nonporous sample had a composition typical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047332
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... areas representing graphitic residue and corrosion products that were not removed by erosion. Exposure of the pump bowl to the well water resulted in graphitic corrosion, which generated a soft, porous graphitic residue impregnated with insoluble corrosion products. Failure of the pump bowl resulted...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 18 Demarcation line at the crack, showing the differences in graphite type and distribution on either side of the crack. Etched with nital. 33× More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 25 Static tensile failures in carbon-graphite composite samples. Failure was by fastener pullout. (a) Single-lap shear specimen. (b) Double-lap shear specimen. Both 1 1 3 × More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 26 Fatigue failure of fasteners in single-lop shear carbon-graphite composite joints. (a) Fastener pullout resulting from a static tensile load. (b) Fatigue failure of fasteners initiated by cocking of the fasteners. Both 1 1 3 × More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 18 AISI O6 graphitic tool steel punch machined from centerless-ground bar stock that cracked after limited service. (a) Cracks (arrows) accentuated with magnetic particles. (b) Microstructural examination revealed an overaustenitized structure consisting of appreciable retained austenite More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 23 Graphitized microstructure of SA-210-A-1 plain carbon steel. The structure is ferrite and graphite with only a trace of spheroidized carbon remaining. Etched with nital. 500× More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 9 Impressed-current cathodic protection of a buried pipeline using graphite anodes. Source: Ref 6 More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 8 Scanning electron micrograph of ductile cast iron graphite nodules and ferritic phase after corrosion tests. Note the loss of material at the interface of the nodule. 2000×. Source: Ref 11 , 12 More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 41 Graphitic corrosion of a gray cast iron sewer pipe section removed from the mud bottom of a seawater bay. Graphitic corrosion on the outside diameter surface is apparent for approximately 25% of the wall thickness. Courtesy of S.R. Freeman, Millennium Metallurgy, Ltd. More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 42 A 25 cm (10 in.) diam gray cast iron pipe that failed due to graphitic corrosion. The pipe was part of a water supply to a fire protection system. The external surface was covered with soil and the inside surface in contact with water. The pipe had been experienced cracking and through More