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graphitic corrosion

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047332
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... areas representing graphitic residue and corrosion products that were not removed by erosion. Exposure of the pump bowl to the well water resulted in graphitic corrosion, which generated a soft, porous graphitic residue impregnated with insoluble corrosion products. Failure of the pump bowl resulted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... corrosion resistance. Etching of the core structure showed a selective form of cast iron corrosion (spongiosis or graphitic corrosion) which lowered the strength of the cast iron enough that a knife could scrape off a black powder (10.85% C, 1.8% S, 1.45% P). Analysis showed that some of the “sulfate” found...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... X10 CrNiTi 18 9 that failed by stress corrosion cracking. 8 × Fig. 8 Unetched micro-section of a cracked pump casing of austenitic spheroidal graphite cast iron. 100 × Fig. 9 Scanning electron micrograph of a fracture face from the bolt in Fig. 7 . 400 × Fig. 10 Scanning...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... graphite and carbides in an austenitic matrix and was considered normal for the specified material GGL Ni-Cu-Cr 15 6 2. It was concluded that the cause of the damage was porosity at the junction between back wall and blades arising during the casting process. Cavitation did not contribute to fracture but...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... concentration, and surface condition are discussed. Sections are devoted to fatigue crack assessment, corrosion relation to fatigue failure, and the micro-mechanisms of fatigue failure. Materials considered include steels. Photographs of service failures are used to illustrate features alluded to in the text...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... denickelification desiliconification dezincification galvanic corrosion graphitic corrosion intergranular corrosion pitting corrosion selective leaching uniform corrosion velocity-affected corrosion CORROSION is the electrochemical reaction of a material and its environment. This article addresses...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0047335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... cast iron pipe. Chemical analyses of the porous region had a substantial increase in carbon, silicon, phosphorus, and sulfur. The porous appearance and the composition of the soft porous residue confirmed graphitic corrosion. The selective leaching of iron leaves a residue rich in carbon, silicon, and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091384
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... resulting in graphitic corrosion. Soils containing sulfates are particularly aggressive. Recommendations included pipe replacement. The wall thickness had been sufficiently reduced that the pipe could no longer support the required load. Water mains are designed for more than 100 years life. Ductile iron or...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., along with sooty residue. Patterns similar to those associated with erosion/corrosion damage were observed. Microstructural examination of wasted areas revealed a bulk matrix composed of massive carbides, indicating that gross carburization and metal dusting had occurred. X-ray diffraction analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... chromium additions such as ASTM A213 Grade T11 or T22, which are resistant to graphitization damage. Boiler tubes Creep (materials) Graphitization, Heating effects Mechanical properties Microstructural effects Overheating ASTM A209 grade T1 UNS K11522 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... outage. Boiler tubes Graphitization Mechanical properties ASME SA219-T1A UNS K12023 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Creep fracture/stress rupture Reference 1. ASM Committee on Failures of Pressure Vessels, Boilers and Pressure Piping, G.M. Slaughter, Chairman...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... behavior in terms of graphitization. A region of the water wall tubes of a boiler was overheated because of the incidence of flames. This occurred in the vicinity of the burners. The result was severe oxidation, local deformation with diametral expansion, and cracks from corrosion fatigue. One of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... copper ions introduced galvanic corrosion of the aluminum stirrer plate. Less frequently recognized is the influence of nonmetallic conductors as cathodes in galvanic couples. Carbon brick in vessels is strongly cathodic to the common structural metals and alloys. Impervious graphite, especially...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... sample containing the crack. The two cracks are shown in Fig. 10 . The primary crack was partially filled with corrosion products. Near the crack tip, the crack was filled with corrosion products and clearly propagated along some of the graphite flakes ( Fig. 11 ). This tendency to follow the weak...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... graphite. Also, the roles of oxycarbides, oxynitrides, and silicon-aluminum oxynitrides, as well as metals and alloys in refractories, have been documented. These aspects are treated in the following paragraphs and sections. In general, the corrosion resistance of a refractory is high if formation of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c0047328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... could be demonstrated only with the help of metallographic techniques. Fig. 2 Structure of the insert collar shown in Fig. 1 . (a) Corrosion-fatigue crack; as-polished section showing the flake graphite form. 20×. (b) Section etched with 3% nital; at the corrosion-fatigue crack, the structure is...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ). Corrosion products in the pits consist of metal carbides, metal oxides, and graphite. The attack is localized, and carburization is confined to the pit. Slight modifications in the process conditions may significantly affect the occurrence and extent of metal dusting attack. The phenomenon can produce...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in pitting and overall wastage of stainless steels, with or without an oxidizing environment ( Ref 12 , 13 ). Corrosion products in the pits consist of metal carbides, metal oxides, and graphite. The attack is localized, and carburization is confined to the pit. Slight modifications in process...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... failure and provide preventive measures. The valve body was made of A216-WCC cast carbon steel. Its inner surface was covered with cracks stemming from surface pits. Investigators concluded that the failure was caused by a combination of hydrogen-induced corrosion cracking and sulfide stress-corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the electrochemical nature of corrosion and analyzes corrosion-related failures. It describes corrosion failure analysis and discusses corrective and preventive approaches to mitigate corrosion-related failures of metals. These include: change in...