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grain-boundary cracks

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... examined metallographically. Investigation showed this was a case where flaky forgings were made from cast ingots with primary grain boundary cracks. This parallelity supports the often expressed opinion that both occurrences have the same origin, i.e. that hydrogen precipitation was the driving force...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... such as electrolytic and hand polishing and the vibration method resulted in poor edge and crack edge definition due to material thickness. Etching experiments involved a grain surface attack and hence produced a rather strong surface relief from which the grain boundary cracks could again not clearly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... by initiation of fatigue cracks in the decarburized zone under conditions of repeated bending and unbending stresses superimposed on the static tensile load. wire rope brittle fracture decarburization steel grain-boundary cracks electron probe microanalysis tensile strength High-carbon steel (alloy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... by the chemical reaction that corroded the internal tube surface. Steel embrittled by hydrogen can be restored only if grain boundary cracking or decarburization had not occurred but since the material embrittled in this manner, its replacement was recommended. Boiler tubes Cracking (fracturing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... was strongly reduced in bulk from the inside and covered with a thick crumbling layer of magnetic iron oxide (Fe3-O4). This was a corrosion product resulting from the operation of the boiler. In addition, it was decarburized from the inside, and interspersed with grain boundary cracks. This form of attack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Briant C.L. and Banerji S.K. , Intergranular Fracture in Steel: The Role of Grain-Boundary Composition , Int. Met. Rev. , No. 4 , 1978 , p 164 – 196 10.1179/imr.1978.23.1.164 5. Shewmon P.G. , Grain Boundary Cracking , Metall. Mater. Trans. B , Vol 29 , June 1998 , p...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... suggests that the intergranular path of caustic cracks in steam boilers may be due largely to the presence, probably on a submicroscopic scale, of carbides at the grain boundaries, thus rendering these regions susceptible to preferential attack. It is known that some steels are more liable to develop...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... subjected to three-point bend testing, and fracture surfaces were examined using SEM fractography, metallography, and depth analysis (SIMS) of the fracture surface. The cracks were found to originate at austenitic grain boundaries that coincided with primary dendrite interfaces. The cracking was attributed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... ). The cracks penetrated more than 30 percent of the wall thickness and a few cracks were several inches long. The cracks were preferentially oriented along the roll length and primarily at the roll inside surface. Field metallographic examination showed significant grain boundary chromium-carbide precipitation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) indicated significant segregation of sulfur and chlorine along the grain boundaries. Failure was attributed to hypochlorous-acid (HClO)-induced stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). The HClO was formed by the reaction of HCl with atmospheric O 2 that entered the tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of the weld. Metallographic examination showed that cracking was intergranular and that adjacent grain boundaries had undergone deep intergranular attack. Examination at higher magnification revealed heavy carbide precipitation, primarily at grain boundaries, indicating that the alloy had been sensitized...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the failure occurred by a brittle intergranular mechanism and stress-corrosion cracking (SCC), and indicated a failure mode of selective grain-boundary separation. The diaphragms were heat treated in batches of 25. An improper heat treatment could have...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... on the back side of the weld from a chill block, fixture or purge gas. A steep temperature gradient would reduce the width of the partially melted region (liquid at grain boundaries) in the HAZ and the likelihood of cracks occurring [ 3 ]. Fig. 5 Intergranular HAZ Liquation Microcrack Initiation Site...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... that were within the HAZ of the adjacent weld deposit. The heat of welding had generated a coarse-grain structure with a weak grain-boundary network of ferrite that had not been corrected by postweld heat treatment. The combination of the cracks and this unfavorable microstructure provided a weakened...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... the reason the part failed so dramatically. A continuous film of carbide is shown with a continuous crack running parallel to the carbides. This sensitized structure produces an area depleted in protective chromium, making it susceptible to corrosion. Fig. 3 Grain-boundary carbide film in the part...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... of the distal fragment. Gas pores are apparent in the grain and at the grain boundaries were revealed by a transverse section. Fine parallel line structures that run diagonally through the fractograph may be slip traces were revealed by scanning electron microscopy. One of the cracks was revealed to have...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001717
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... corrosion cracking of maraging steels occurs along the prior austenitic boundaries. It has also been documented that coarse grains are harmful for SCC 6 . One such study 7 compares stress corrosion cracking behavior as a function of grain size for maraging 300 steel. The material was subjected...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., the blow pipe was exposed to high temperatures when the liner cracked and subsequently bulged out due to creep. refractory-lined pipe creep deformation overheating carbon steel voids scale grain boundary oxidation grain coarsening microstructural examination strength P265GH (nonresulfurized...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... examination revealed that precipitation of carbides at the grain boundaries had taken place in the vicinity of the cracks, but that the paths of the cracks were not wholly intergranular. Conditions present in the vicinity of the internal fillet weld must have been such as to favor both inter...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Multiple cracks, primarily intergranular were found on the inlet and outlet faces along prior-austenite grain boundaries. The cracks initiated at the surface and propagated inward. Multiple crack branching was observed. Many of the cracks were filled with iron oxide. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...