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grain size variations

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Grain Size Effects Variation and Inhomogeneity Effects Hardenability Calculations Heat Treating and Hardenability Welding and Hardenability Case History #1 - Compression Spring Fracture Case History #2 - Axle Bar Cracking Case History #3 - HSLA Steel Welding Failure Case History...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Similar grain size variation was noticed in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the upper brazed joint ( Fig. 7b ). Extensive stretching of material near the upper circumferential fracture surface is also evident in Fig. 7 . Metallographic examination of the inner surface of the intermediate tubular portion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the sealed compressor chamber. A unique combination of applied stress, residual stress, stress riser, and grain size helped isolate the failure mechanism to a single production lot of material. fastening pin corrosion stress concentration copper alloys grain size variations scanning electron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to overheating during forging operations, can also cause machining failures in wrought metals ( Ref 27 ). Grain size variation in thin products ( Ref 27 ) and secondary crystallization (also called abnormal grain growth) ( Ref 28 ) during annealing of wrought stainless steels, copper, nickel, and aluminum...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...-corrosion cracking were not well defined in this investigation. Microstructures of failed bolts reflected the normal, tempered martensitic structure characteristic of this material for the required strength. Significant grain size variations were observed between bolts supplied by the two vendors ( Fig, 13...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., internal bursts or chevron cracks, cracks on free surfaces, cracks on die-contacted surfaces Metal-flow-related problems: for example, end grain and poor surface performance; inhomogeneous grain size; shear bands and locally weakened structures; cold shuts, folds, and laps; flow-through defects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... was greater compared to the areas remote from it ( Fig. 16 ). The etched microstructure of the tube revealed a substantial variation in grain size. The grain size near the local burst was very fine ( Fig. 17a ), and the remote area showed large grain size ( Fig. 17b ). Fig. 16 Optical micrograph...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... maximum grain growth upon solution treatment. The portions of the tube at 90 ° to the neutral axis received the maximum amount of cold work and therefore recrystallized, but did not undergo any appreciable change in grain size. The wide variation in grain sizes observed near the neutral axis...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... stresses formed and, ultimately, on dimensional changes to be expected. Some of the factors affecting retaining austenite formation include chemical composition (which dictates the M s temperature), quenching temperature, quenching cooling rates, austenitizing temperature, grain size, and tempering...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... impact values. Normalizing at 900°C (1650°F) slightly improved the grain size, which resulted in a marginal increase in impact properties. Normalizing the forging at a slightly higher temperature (930°C, or 1705°F) would probably improve mechanical properties marginally. The steel used...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001531
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
..., toughness, and ductility are mainly determined by the carbon content of wheel steels. The fatigue crack growth resistance is insensitive to composition and microstructure, while the fatigue crack initiation life increases with the decrease of austenite grain size and pearlite colony size. The dynamic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... increases. Poor correlation between austenitic grain size and quench cracking Quench sensitivity Cracking and distortion increase as carbon equivalent (C eq ) is increased. Alloy is crack sensitive if C eq > 0.52, where: C eq = C + Mn 5 + Mo 5 + Cr 10...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Grain size was found to be relatively finer in the failed HPTB-1 blade compared to that of the unfailed blade. There was no significant variation noticed with regard to heat-treatment condition in those blades. Grain size of ASTM no. 4.5 is observed in HPTB-1 and HPTB-2 blades. At some locations, grains...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., crack-growth rates can vary widely with variations in loading parameters, such as stress state, stress-intensity range, and stress-wave shape and frequency. For example, crack size and geometry may alter the electrochemical environment near the crack tip and consequently change the crack-growth rate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Hypothesis and Equicohesive Temperatures , J. Am. Inst. Met. , Vol 11 ( No. 3 ), Dec 1917 , p 300 – 324 3. Jeffries Z. , Effects of Temperature, Deformation, and Grain Size on the Mechanical Properties of Metals , Trans. AIME , Vol 60 , 1919 , p 474 – 576 4. Briant C.L...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., the alloy microstructure and grain morphology play the principal roles in failure initiation and propagation. This is especially true when there is a variation in the microstructure of the bucket material because microstructural variations cause mechanical properties in the bucket alloy to vary...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of a thick section and an adjacent thin section, minimizing the likelihood of shrinkage. Chills also are useful in promoting directional solidification, so that a riser can act more effectively. Depending on casting shape and size, variations in section thickness, and types of junctions between component...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... , The Amorphous Metal Hypothesis and Equicohesive Temperatures , J. Am. Inst. Met. , Vol 11 ( No. 3 ), Dec 1917 , p 300 – 324 3. Jeffries Z. , Effects of Temperature, Deformation, and Grain Size on the Mechanical Properties of Metals , Trans. AIME , Vol 60 , 1919 , p 474 – 576 4...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: Ref 35 Fig. 19 Erosion rate of ceramics with different grain size (frequency = 20 kHz; distance between specimen and vibration horn = 1 mm; vibration amplitude = 50 μm; temperature = 25 °C; liquid: ion-exchanged water). Source: Ref 37 Fig. 21 Erosion rate of laser-modified 316...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and technical ceramics is a matter of both phase composition and texture. The texture (nature and dimension of the grains, coarse or fine, mono-size or multiple sizes) and the porosity as well as the bonding criteria (type of sintering) for maximum thermal stress resistance are, on the whole, opposed to those...