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grain refinement model

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... at elevated temperatures. The article describes the stages of the creep curve, discusses processes involved in the extrapolation of creep data, and summarizes notable creep constitutive models and continuum damage mechanics models. It demonstrates the effects of stress relaxation and redistribution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., refining the grains (increasing the grain-boundary area) decreases the tramp element concentration in a given boundary. This refinement increases the threshold stress intensity in AISI 4340 steel ( Ref 23 ). The addition of some alloying elements may either enhance or diminish the susceptibility...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ( 2006 ) (in Spanish) 8. Broek C.T. : FutureSteelVehicle: leading edge innovation for steel body structures . Ironmak. Steelmak. 39 ( 7 ), 477 – 482 ( 2012 ) 10.1179/0301923312Z.000000000123 9. Mukherjee K. , Hazra S.S. , Militzer M. : Grain refinement in dual...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... imparts more grain-boundary regions for improved strength. Moreover, because a greater number of arbitrarily aligned grains are achieved when grain size is reduced, the stressed material has more opportunity to allow slip and thus improve ductility. Thus, grain-size refinement provides a means...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with increasingly sophisticated finite-element thermal stress analysis. Development of more refined engineering-based models should result in less reliance on component simulation, which is subject to some uncertainty. It has been customary to characterize materials in terms of their fatigue and creep...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... However, metallurgical or material defects such as inclusions and nonuniform grain structure may affect tube quality. Additionally, selection of unsuitable forming parameters may alter the quality of the tubing produced. This paper relates the metallurgical quality of the steel to the ability to achieve...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... void (A) in (b), showing start of flow line between region of normal structure (B), with eutectic silicon (C) of normal shape in matrix of aluminum solid solution (D), and region of undesirable structure (E). 0.5% hydrofluoric acid. Original magnification: 504× Fig. 37 Grain refining of A356...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ). The measurement of residual stress via XRD is generally limited to polycrystalline materials ( Ref 6 ), that is, in materials with a grain structure (long-range ordering) as normally found in metals and their alloys as well as in polycrystalline ceramics (i.e., oxides, carbides, nitrides, etc.). Exceptions occur...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... is a progress report on the quantification of changes in both the degree of carbide precipitation and delta ferrite content and shape in the cladding as a function of temperature and time to refine the estimates of the maximum temperatures experienced. Delta ferrite Hot cracking Nuclear power reactors...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... wear apparatus. Most mechanical components continue to be functional beyond the zero wear limit, and their usefulness is normally connected with the loss of a specific depth of material. The article reviews the zero impact wear model and some measurable impact wear models. It presents a case study...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... is improved by the presence of the undissolved carbides. Even though the core has not undergone any grain refinement, it is quite tough, because it is largely tough ferrite that was untransformed at the hardening temperature. For critical parts, it may be necessary to refine the core before the final...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and Investigating Sensitivity to Fatigue Flaw Growth Models , PVP2015-45609, Proceedings of the 2015 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference , July 19–23 , 2015 ( Boston , MA ) 10.1115/PVP2015-45609 40. Lee Y. , Barkey M.E. , and Kang H. , Metal Fatigue Analysis Handbook: Practical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the material for proper hardening. For example, cast structures must be homogeneous, cold-formed structures require normalization and annealing, and forged structures must be grain-refined by normalization. Cracking may be caused by microstructures, resulting in nonuniform heating or cooling. In Fig. 31...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... cleavage cracking of grain-boundary carbides in low-carbon steels. This model was examined ( Ref 12 ) and it was determined that the maximum normal stress at the pileup occurred on a plane rotated 70.5° from the slip plane. Using this model, it can be shown that a crack is nucleated when the shear stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Griffith) criterion can be met (see the section “Background” in this article). This model is used to predict cleavage cracking of grain-boundary carbides in low-carbon steels. This model was used ( Ref 12 ) to determine that the maximum normal stress at the pileup occurred on a plane rotated 70.5° from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... It discusses the processes involved in testing and modeling of impact wear, and includes two case studies. ceramics impact wear metals polymers wear modeling IMPACT OR PERCUSSIVE WEAR has been defined as “the wear of a solid surface that is due to percussion, which is a repetitive exposure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of substrate, such as a nonmetallic inclusion, a grain refiner, or a second-phase particle. This is why numerous investigations have shown that clean castings, those castings that are free from inclusions, have fewer pores than castings that contain inclusions. Porosity and casting costs also are minimized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... degradation from corrosion, including coating degradation, is excessive. Grain-boundary attack and/or pitting by oxidation/hot corrosion is excessive. Foreign object damage is severe. Destructive sampling and testing indicate life exhaustion. Excessive deformation has occurred due to creep...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Evaluate Brittle Fracture? Historical Failures Key Components Assessing Susceptibility to Brittle Fracture in Process Equipment Case Studies Acknowledgment References References 1. “ Damage Mechanisms Affecting Fixed Equipment in the Refining Industry ,” API Recommended Practice 571...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... THAT INVOLVE FLAMMABLE AND EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS are used in various chemical, refining, and process facilities. For example, failure due to a leak, internal explosion, overpressurization, or detonation of a storage tank, pressure vessel, or piping containing combustible products can result in blast damage...