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grain refinement

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... with it, causing stresses at the grain boundaries. Grains may separate and tear if the elastic limits reached. Although the mismatch and the closeness of the trimming appeared to be the major cause of the cracks, alloys grain refined with 0.03% V seemed to suffer more cracking than aluminum-grain-refined...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... crack (0), major points of crack arrestment (1 to 5), and total crack length (between 5s). Arrow 6 indicates an undissolved grain refiner. Dimensions given in inches Investigation Conclusions Recommendations Selected Reference Selected Reference • Fatigue Failures , Failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.../EDS analysis showed base metal grain boundary precipitates to be primarily chromium carbides, but some titanium carbides were also observed. Failure was believed to result from the synergism of thermally driven tube distortion, which resulted in over-stress, and from the intergranular oxidation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... a weld location taken from the separated rocker panel flange. The darker and small grained microstructure is that of the original condition of the sheet metal. The lighter colored regions showing grain refining and coarse grain structure, constitute a heat affected zone. This microstructure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0065825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
..., sulfur content, and grain refining additives, required steelmaking technology enhancements. Improved steel processing procedures, chiefly hot-working temperature and deformation control, were also required to optimize microstructure and properties. References References 1. Fearnehough G.D...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... was different from the specified alloy. Scanning electron microscopy showed intergranular failure with enhanced aluminum and segregation of lead at grain boundaries. In this type of alloy, aluminum is used for strengthening through grain refinement, because aluminum would tend to segregate to the grain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... The addition of iron acts as a grain refiner and also increases the yield strength [ 1 ]. The use of these three alloying elements creates a metallurgically complex alloy that needs to be strictly controlled to obtain all of the desired properties. Without the proper fabrication procedures, the corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... for the manufacture of the forging was apparently not fully killed, which further contributed to poor impact strength. The carbon steel plate material was found to have adequate tensile properties and moderate toughness, as indicated by Charpy impact testing (35.3 J, or 26 ft . lbf). Grain refinement during...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0089752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... steel plate used was rolled from fully killed ingots made with a grain-refining practice and normalized after rolling, which provided a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of approximately −32 °C (−25 °F). The following authors and contributors of previous editions provided substantial...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001484
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... . The structure at location X in Figure 2 , within the heat-affected zone, is depicted in Figure 6 , where it can he seen that some grain refining had taken place, the temperature attained in this region being of the order of 825°C. Fig. 4 Microstructure at location of crack. (×150). Fig. 5...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... grain refinement took place at the time of welding. The weld was of good quality except adjacent to the surface where a shallow defect associated with oxidised material was present, this being marked by the arrow in Figure 4 . There was no evidence of decarburisation of the material of the link...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., the stressed material has more opportunity to allow slip and thus improve ductility. Thus, grain-size refinement provides a means for an increase of both strength and ductility (toughness). However, the grain boundaries are also a region with many faults, dislocations, and voids. This relative atomic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., refining the grains (increasing the grain-boundary area) decreases the tramp element concentration in a given boundary. This refinement increases the threshold stress intensity in AISI 4340 steel ( Ref 23 ). The addition of some alloying elements may either enhance or diminish the susceptibility...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ( 2006 ) (in Spanish) 8. Broek C.T. : FutureSteelVehicle: leading edge innovation for steel body structures . Ironmak. Steelmak. 39 ( 7 ), 477 – 482 ( 2012 ) 10.1179/0301923312Z.000000000123 9. Mukherjee K. , Hazra S.S. , Militzer M. : Grain refinement in dual...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the material for proper hardening. For example, cast structures must be homogeneous, cold-formed structures require normalization and annealing, and forged structures must be grain-refined by normalization. Cracking may be caused by microstructures, resulting in nonuniform heating or cooling. In Fig. 31...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... cellular carbide network, which created a brittle path for fracture to occur longitudinally. As the cellular carbide network must be dispersed and refined during hot working of the original bar of material, the hobs were not salvageable. Minor factors contributing to the hob failures were premature wear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... The other had not fractured, but exhibited circumferential cracks on the surface of the central zone. Visual surface examination and metallographic and chemical analyses were performed on the specimens. Cracking was attributed primarily to poor heat treatment, resulting in a brittle grain-boundary network...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of substrate, such as a nonmetallic inclusion, a grain refiner, or a second-phase particle. This is why numerous investigations have shown that clean castings, those castings that are free from inclusions, have fewer pores than castings that contain inclusions. Porosity and casting costs also are minimized...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... the contour of the part and offers three distinct advantages compared to a part that was machined: enhanced directional strength, structural integrity, and dynamic properties. 1 By refining the grain structure and developing optimum grain flow, forging promotes desirable directional properties...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0045988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... exhibited restored bend ductility and a refined grain size of ASTM 5 to 6. The specimen from the unfailed strap, originally a ductile material, fractured by cleavage and exhibited a coarsened grain size of ASTM 4. Transgranular-cleavage (brittle) fracture occurred across rivet holes in the clamp strap...