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grain growth

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract The metallurgical condition of a cylindrical induction melter (CIM) vessel was evaluated after approximately 375 h of operation over a two-year span at temperatures between 1400 to 1500 deg C. Wall thinning and significant grain growth was observed in the lower portion of the conical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001717
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of choosing an alternative material with a lower notch sensitivity. In addition, the temperature at which this alloy is treated must be monitored to prevent coarse grain growth. As a result of this investigation and in an effort to eliminate future failures, ARL assisted in developing a cadmium brush plating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001483
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... in between the bolt and the hole in the strip. The bolt end adjacent to the fracture had been subjected to intense local heating. The extent of the grain-growth indicating that the temperature had been in the region of 1200 deg C (2192 deg F). When the temperature reached the melting-point of copper, 1083...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of a weld, and also the grain growth that had occurred in this region. Selected Reference Selected Reference • Failures Related to Welding , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2002 , p 156 – 191 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509 I.—Following...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... the conclusions that bending of the connector tubes in the annealed condition induced critical strain near the neutral axis of the tube, which resulted in excessive growth of individual grains during the subsequent solution treatment. Recommendations included bending the connector tubes in the T4 temper as early...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... F higher than specified by the ASTM standards. The fatigue crack growth rate through this area was much faster than expected. All of these property changes resulted from increased carbon levels, higher yield strength, and larger than normal grain size. Bridges (structural) Grain size...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... growth was cleavage, probably caused by cast-in hydrogen. The intergranular appearance resulted from heat treatment of the already cracked part, which caused the formation of grain-boundary “growth figures” on the exposed crack surfaces. It was recommended that the castings be more closely inspected...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... during shutdowns and startups. Residual stresses, originating from in situ bend forming of the tube during assembly of the line, provided a driving force for crack growth, and the segregation of sulfur on grain boundaries made the material more susceptible to cracking. bent tube fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the preferred path of crack growth. In general, IG fractures are classified and termed as one of three: Dimpled IG fracture IG brittle fracture IG fatigue fracture Dimpled IG fracture refers to the cases when microvoid coalescence occurs in (or perhaps adjacent to) grain boundaries from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... and evenly distributed throughout the structure. Instead, the grains were totally surrounded with brittle carbide particles. This facilitated the formation of a crack at a fillet in the keyway. Crack growth was rapid once the crack had initiated. ...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... sequence of failure involved overheating of the Cr-Mo outlet tubes, heavy oxidation, oxide cracking on thermal cycling, thermal fatigue cracking plus oxidation, creep-controlled crack growth, and rapid plastic deformation and rupture. This failure was indicative of excess temperature of the steam coming...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001531
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
.... The strength, toughness, and ductility are mainly determined by the carbon content of wheel steels. The fatigue crack growth resistance is insensitive to composition and microstructure, while the fatigue crack initiation life increases with the decrease of austenite grain size and pearlite colony size...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... (which was exposed to soot and to the endothermic atmosphere), before being overheated, had apparently undergone sufficient grain-boundary carburization to prevent subsequent grain growth in the outer half of the wall. In the inner half of the wall, grain growth from overheating occurred before...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... This structure was not present in the forged stock and was not typical of the forging process. The suspected cause was uneven flow of material during the forging process, which resulted in stagnant areas where grain growth occurred. Microscopic examination of the parts revealed large grain areas near the parting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0091048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...) Metallographic profile of the weld near the cracking, showing melt-through, grain growth, and precipitation. 8.9×. (d) Grain-boundary precipitates in the weld zone. 119×. (c) and (d) were etched with Vilella's reagent followed by electrolytic etching in 10% oxalic acid. Selected References...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the steels is very important. Figure 1 shows the changes in grain size during the roughing process for both a steel sample microalloyed with Nb and one without it. It is clear that the alloying element promotes a smaller grain size and prevents growth after rolling passes. On the other hand, Fig. 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... are grain growth and precipitate growth. Grain growth will occur as a function of grain-boundary movement in order to reduce the overall area of grain boundaries within the microstructure. Grain growth generally follows the following simplified rate equation: (Eq 3) d t   2 = d 0   2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001574
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... between the nitrided layer and the coating, in case of the used punch. Cracks were observed to propagate from the outer surface into the bulk (see Figure 1a ). Oxidation was evident along the cracks. Also, extensive grain growth with grain boundary coarsening (indicating grain boundary precipitation) 1...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... defects Electroplating Hydrogen embrittlement, galvanic corrosion Heat treatment Excessive grain growth, burning of grain boundaries, brittle structure, carburization, decarburization, quench cracks Electrolytic cleaning Pitting Surface hardening, nitriding, carburizing, anodic hard...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for the grades. Excessively high austenitizing temperatures promote grain growth and excessive retained austenite. Most tool steel grades have high carbon contents and rely on the undissolved portion of the carbides to control grain growth. An excessive austenitizing temperature puts more carbon in solution...