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grain flow

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... was normal for aluminum alloy 2014-T6 and the hardness surpassed the minimum hardness required for aluminum alloy 2014-T6. An abrupt change in the direction of grain flow across the fracture plane indicated that the wall had buckled during forging. This evidence supported the conclusion that the wheel half...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0046182
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... of the fracture surface revealed grain flow normal for this type of forging, but no visible defects. 400x metallographic examination of a section through the fracture surface showed that the microstructure was an acceptable tempered martensite. However, oxide inclusions were present at the fracture surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... penetrant inspection, and micrographs with deep etching in aqueous 20% sodium hydroxide) supported the conclusion that failure on both wheel halves was by fatigue caused by a forging defect resulting from abnormal transverse grain flow. The crack in the first wheel half occurred during service...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in the wires established that the fractures were caused by fatigue loading attributable to wind/thermal factors at the joints. The grain flow at the joints was transverse to the wire axis, rendering the notches of the joints sensitive to fatigue loading. An additional contributory factor was intergranular...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... grains occurred elsewhere. This indicated that the material flow and/or the temperature in these areas were different, perhaps due to mismatch or improper working of the material during forging. The failures were from three sources. The first was folds in the forging produced during the forging...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Attachment bolts Grain flow Carburizing Hy-Tuf UNS K325599 Heat treating related failures Metalworking related failures Stress-corrosion cracking Introduction Acknowledgment Reference Reference 1. Anon. : in Product Design Guide for Forging , Forging Industry Association , Cleveland...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract Brief overheating of the 89 mm OD 6.4 mm wall thickness titanium heater tubes (ASTM B337, grade 2) was caused by a flow stoppage in a leach heater. Blue-tinted areas and patches of flaky white, yellow, and brown oxide scale was revealed on visual examination. It was disclosed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001513
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
..., the individual corrosion pits acted as stress raisers and initiated coarse grain spalling. Due to a bending moment on the rotating element, this in turn initiated bending fatigue normal to the longitudinal axis, which propagated through to the bore of the inner ring. Stain marks were visible in the bore...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0060097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
...Abstract Abstract An eddy current survey of the copper evaporator (chiller) tubes in an absorption air-conditioning unit revealed two tubes in the evaporator bundle with indications typical of longitudinal cracks. Significant necking down and grain distortion at the fracture surfaces...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of a carbon steel forging. The valve was used for reversing the flow direction of seawater in the cooling system of a condenser. Visual examination of the flap showed crystalline fracture, indicating a brittle failure. Metallographic examination, chemical analyses, and tensile and impact testing indicated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001268
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...) 1089 158 1385 207 28.0 177 25.6 Drwg Min. 1035 150 1240 180 12 … … Fig. 3 Representative macrograph showing direction of grain flow. 7.88×. Fig. 1 Engineering drawing of the detent spring. Fig. 2 Failed detent spring in the as-received condition. 0.2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Improper lubrication or fit can cause wear that distorts components. Grain flow is often a feature of wear, but in very hard components, the grain flow may be difficult to discern ( Fig. 29 ). Fig. 29 (a) Phosphor bronze worm gear with worn teeth. (b) Original shape of tooth. Ferric chloride etch...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... formed parts cracking cracks forging grain flow heat treatment hydrogen content imperfections ingot pipe laminations metalworking nonmetallic inclusions pits porosity scabs seams sheet metal forming unmelted electrodes workability WROUGHT FORMS are produced by a wide variety...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of the crack (left). Suspected multiple initiation sites are located between arrows. 1.5x. (c) Section of flange with surface at right. Grain flow in this area was at an angle to applied stress, which resulted in end grain exposure. 105x. (d) SEM fractograph taken between the arrows in (b). Note intergranular...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0048164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... and transverse sections near the fracture confirmed that the material had suffered extensive grain flow from cold working in the brinelled areas. The general microstructure was fine-grained tempered martensite of good quality. There was no surface decarburization. Chemical analysis identified the spring...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... the type of fracture mode indicated during visual and fractographic examination. A typical ductile overload failed wire is shown in Fig. 3 . Even if the fracture surface has been damaged or corroded, the telltale grain flow and necking may be apparent. Fig. 3 Metallographic cross section through...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... and progressed by an intergranular failure mechanism. This fracture topography indicated that cracking was due to stress corrosion. Examination of the microstructure near the fracture revealed that the crack was progressing parallel to the transverse grain flow direction and further suggested SCC. Chemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
.... It may be better to use a forged product in this case because of resulting “grain flow” and inclusion orientation. Selected References Selected References • Becker W.T. and McGarry D. , Mechanisms and Appearances of Ductile and Brittle Fracture in Metals , Failure Analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... martensite, supposedly heat treated to an ultimate tensile strength range of 1240 to 1380 MPa (180 to 200 ksi). Testing revealed that the actual ultimate tensile strength of the fasteners varied from 1310 to 1480 MPa (190 to 215 ksi). The grain-flow pattern in the head-to-shank radius was satisfactory...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-notched plate specimens are fractured in tensile loading, a portion or all of the fracture surface behind the notch can be normal (perpendicular) to the applied load, and there may be little macroscale indication of transverse contraction to indicate plastic flow prior to fracture. However...