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grain boundary segregation

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Results indicated that the boiler failure was caused by grain-boundary segregation of phosphorous, tin, and nitrogen and the in-service formation of carbide films and granules on the grain boundaries. steam chest fracture high-temperature oxidation chromium alloy steel grain boundary defects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) indicated significant segregation of sulfur and chlorine along the grain boundaries. Failure was attributed to hypochlorous-acid (HClO)-induced stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). The HClO was formed by the reaction of HCl with atmospheric O 2 that entered the tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the extent of grain boundary phosphorus segregation exhibited a good relationship with ambient temperature Charpy data. The electrochemical polarization kinetic reactivation, EPR, approach, however, proved disappointing in that the overlapping scatter in the minimum current density, Ir, for an embrittled...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... to a decrease in grain-boundary cohesion resulting from sulfur segregation. Addition of molybdenum proved effective in preventing cracking. The molybdenum promoted MnS precipitation in the grain and preferentially segregated to the interfaces. Brittle fracture Casting defects Castings Molybdenum...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of the alloy was different from that specified. The presence of excess aluminum and lead impurities that had segregated to the grain boundaries, coupled with an inadequate amount of magnesium, resulted in intergranular corrosion and subsequent intergranular failure. Corrosion was accelerated by storage...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... , 1983 , p 717 – 726 10.1007/BF02643788 21. Johnson W.C. and Stein D.F. , A Study of Grain Boundary Segregants in Thermally Embrittled Maraging Steel , Metall. Trans. , Vol 5 , 1974 , p 549 – 554 10.1007/BF02644648 22. Pow E.C. , Gerberich W.W. , and Toth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of High Strength Steels in a Gaseous Hydrogen Atmosphere , Metall. Trans. A , Vol 14 , 1983 , p 717 – 726 10.1007/BF02643788 25. Johnson W.C. and Stein D.F. , A Study of Grain Boundary Segregants in Thermally Embrittled Maraging Steel , Metall. Trans. , Vol 5 , 1974 , p 549...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... pipe hot cracking grain boundary segregation stainless steel tear ridges melt bridging microfractography induction heating frequency X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2 (titanium-stabilized austenitic stainless steel) UNS S31635 Introduction Hypotheses about Potential Metallurgical Root Causes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... requirements. No material anomalies, such as segregation at the grain boundaries, were observed. Fig. 8 Micrograph of section of hardened case from rail flange. Microstructure is tempered martensite, as expected from specified heat treatment. Nital etch. Note that no anomalies, such as grain boundary...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
....0000028644.07075.4e 5. Islam M.A. : Grain boundary segregation behavior in 2.25Cr-1Mo steel during reversible temper embrittlement . J. Mater. Eng. Perform . 16 , 73 – 79 ( 2007 ) 10.1007/s11665-006-9011-1 6. Low J.R., Jr. : In Relation of Properties to Microstructure , p. 163 . ASM...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is favored by barriers to dislocation motion (grain boundaries or precipitates), high strength, and grain-boundary segregation. Thus, pure metals and single crystals are less susceptible to embrittlement but are not immune. The brittle fracture stress varies with the inverse square root of the average...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... exhibiting its propagation along the grain boundaries, 1000× Electron probe microanalysis of the transverse sections of all the failed wire samples were also carried out to find existence of any grain-boundary segregation or existence of any harmful trace elements. The analysis showed absence of any...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Embrittlement is favored by barriers to dislocation motion (grain boundaries or precipitates), high strength, and grain-boundary segregation. Thus, pure metals and single crystals are less susceptible to embrittlement but are not immune. The brittle fracture stress varies with the inverse square root...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or operating conditions that heat ferritic and austenitic stainless steels to 500 to 900 °C (930 to 1650 °F) cause segregation at the grain boundaries by the precipitation of complex chromium carbides, the formation of sigma phase, or the precipitation of other deleterious phases. The properties...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... has been attributed to intergranular weakness caused by the precipitation or segregation of impurities to grain boundaries. For example, Auger electron spectroscopy of intergranular fracture surfaces has shown that antimony segregation to grain boundaries can embrittle iron and that the presence...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... segregation cold formed parts cracking cracks forging grain flow heat treatment hydrogen content imperfections ingot pipe laminations metalworking nonmetallic inclusions pits porosity scabs seams sheet metal forming unmelted electrodes workability WROUGHT FORMS are produced by a wide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... carbide content (3.065 vol%) is apparently normal for this grade of steel, field-to-field variations of carbide volume fraction (between 1 and 7%) indicate gross carbide segregations at grain boundaries. The skeleton-like morphology of the massive carbide segregates at grain boundaries presumably...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... as bright spots in the fibrous fracture ( Fig. 2 ). Microscopic observation showed that the separations were short cracks that ran along the primary grain boundaries marked by ferrite and sulfide segregations ( Fig. 3 ). The formation of Such cracks is favored by segregations of various kinds 1 , 2 , 3...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... grain-boundary fissures that are radially aligned. Fig. 8 Stepwise cracking of a low-strength pipeline steel exposed to hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S). 6× Fig. 7 Hydrogen-induced blistering in a 9.5 mm (3/8 in.) thick carbon steel plate (ASTM A 285, grade C) that had been in service one...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of hydrogen charging when cold worked to high strength levels. Aging at temperatures (540 °C, or 1000 °F) at which ordering and/or grain-boundary segregation can occur greatly increases this susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement. Many small commodity-grade components are produced with various secondary...