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grain boundary defects

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... as the temperature decreased. Remarkably this did not occur at the boundaries of the newly formed austenitic grains but apparently at the undissolved nuclei of the original location. According to these tests a subsequent removal of this defect by solutioning is impractical because the annealing temperature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... in the formation of primary grain boundary cracks in cast ingots. Cracking (fracturing) Crankshafts Flakes (defects) Forging Ingots CK 45 Intergranular fracture Metalworking-related failures Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Octagonal cast ingots weighing 6.5 tons and made of unalloyed heat...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... for water pipelines, lead to the conclusion that intercrystalline corrosion in steels involved precipitation of a surplus phase at grain boundaries. Intercrystalline corrosion in austenitic stainless steels due to precipitation of chromium carbides during conditions generated due to welding and ways...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the extent of grain boundary phosphorus segregation exhibited a good relationship with ambient temperature Charpy data. The electrochemical polarization kinetic reactivation, EPR, approach, however, proved disappointing in that the overlapping scatter in the minimum current density, Ir, for an embrittled...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... was strongly reduced in bulk from the inside and covered with a thick crumbling layer of magnetic iron oxide (Fe3-O4). This was a corrosion product resulting from the operation of the boiler. In addition, it was decarburized from the inside, and interspersed with grain boundary cracks. This form of attack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... period at high initial forging temperature. Another block melted under the same conditions and immediately after the defective one, was forged into a gear ring without any trouble. This ring was free of grain boundary precipitates, but it contained only 0.012 % AI and 0.0102 % N. Cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... grain boundaries. Chemical Analysis of the Bulk Material The chemical compositions for the four heats from which the defective kingpins were made were compared with the specification for AISI 4140 steel, and the chemical compositions for other heats which did not give problems. All heats...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... growth was cleavage, probably caused by cast-in hydrogen. The intergranular appearance resulted from heat treatment of the already cracked part, which caused the formation of grain-boundary “growth figures” on the exposed crack surfaces. It was recommended that the castings be more closely inspected...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., which caused ductility loss and grain-boundary separation. The excessive oxygen content in the liner was attributed to diffusion from an oxygen-rich environment that had resulted from nonuniform mixing of propellants. The internal oxygen embrittled the alloy and reduced its thermal conductivity, which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Results indicated that the boiler failure was caused by grain-boundary segregation of phosphorous, tin, and nitrogen and the in-service formation of carbide films and granules on the grain boundaries. steam chest fracture high-temperature oxidation chromium alloy steel grain boundary defects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... casting defects. In Fig. 2 or better in Fig. 3 , which shows the section of a fracture in another roll, it can be seen that the structure of the fracture was scaly apart from a narrow fine grained outer zone. Scaly fracture of this type occurs if the primary grain boundaries are weakened...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of lenticular shape on the grain boundaries may be expected after some 50% of the useful life is used up, these lying approximately normal to the direction of the principal tensile stress. No such defects were observed. Fig. 3 General structure of Incoloy 800H in the collector after 4,500 h of operation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... result from postforming processes Process Possible defects Electroplating Hydrogen embrittlement, galvanic corrosion Heat treatment Excessive grain growth, burning of grain boundaries, brittle structure, carburization, decarburization, quench cracks Electrolytic cleaning Pitting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001106
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... inside the grains ( Fig. 5 ). The samples were etched in hot Murakama's reagent: which stained the grain-boundary particles black suggesting that the precipitates were chromium carbides ( Fig. 6 ). Fig. 3 Microstucture of defective tube surface, showing grain boundaries outlined by carbides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... that contribute to this problem: carbon content and temperature gradient. Quench cracks have several recognizable features and are quite distinctive in appearance ( Fig. 17 ). They originate at the surface and follow the austenite grain boundaries toward the center. Macroscopically, they are usually straight...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... was investigated. Several small pits were found far away from J-2 joints. Metallographic investigation of the damaged area showed heavy carbides presence near the pits as can be seen in Figure 3 and 4 . The pictures also show the expansion of the grain boundaries. Diameter of the crater-like pit is around...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... boundaries properties. Grain boundary sliding and dislocation motion were enhanced, causing a local increase in the steady state strain rate and the premature failure of the tube. Grain boundary sliding Plastic deformation Spalling Voids HK UNS J94224 Creep fracture/stress rupture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
.... In the region of the fracture the grain boundaries were delineated as a near-continuous network of cavities and films of oxide. It was evident that the failure of the rivets in service was attributable to intergranular weakness in the material due to gassing. Boilers Gases Arsenical tough-pitch copper...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in BM, ( f , g ) intergrain and grain boundary Cr-rich carbides precipitation showing sensitization of the structure, and ( h ) nonsensitized typical austenitic structure in BM In order to reveal the finer details of the microstructural constituents, carbide precipitations and defects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of the alloy was different from that specified. The presence of excess aluminum and lead impurities that had segregated to the grain boundaries, coupled with an inadequate amount of magnesium, resulted in intergranular corrosion and subsequent intergranular failure. Corrosion was accelerated by storage...