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glass melting

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
...Abstract Abstract Failure of a pilot scale test melter resulted from severe overheating of an Inconel 690 (690) jacketed molybdenum electrode. Extreme temperatures were required to melt the glass during this campaign because the feed material contained a very high waste loading. Metallurgical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.../Identification Mechanical Properties Stress Analysis The delayed fracture of tempered glass due to nickel sulfide inclusions has been well documented. When nickel sulfide solidifies from the glass melt, it does so in a high-temperature, relatively dense phase. Below a transition range of 379 to 282 °C...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... electrofused, A-Z-S bricks, containing alumina-zirconia-silica and made especially for glass-melting furnaces. Refractory materials with high zirconia content require the use of stabilized zirconia (CaO or MgO in solid solution) to avoid cracking on heating, due to monoclinic to tetragonal transformation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... coil heated the drain tube and was only used to de-inventory the melter. Air was blown on the drain tube to facilitate the solidification of glass at the end of a pouring cycle. The glass plug, which formed in the lower half of the tube, functioned as a valve that would be opened (melted) when the next...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0090442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... material The sleeve materials were further analyzed using TGA. The thermograms obtained on the reference and failed samples were generally consistent, including equivalent glass contents. Additionally, the results were in agreement with those expected for a PBT resin. The melt flow rates (MFRs...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the difference in heat flow between a sample and a reference as the material is heated or cooled ( Ref 5 ). The technique is used to evaluate thermal transitions within a material. Such transitions include melting, evaporation, crystallization, solidification, cross linking, chemical reactions, and decomposition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0090436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
...Abstract Abstract Molded plastic couplings used in an industrial application exhibited abnormally brittle properties, as compared to previously produced components. The couplings were specified to be molded from a custom-compounded glass-filled nylon 6/12 resin. An inspection of the molding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... (311 °F), near the upper end of heat exposure zone III. Fig. 11 Example of melted polycarbonate light fixture shield. The material flows above approximately 155 °C (310 °F), near the upper end of heat exposure zone III. Glass can also give clues as to temperature, but not all glass...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001593
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... The techniques utilized included scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermomechanical analysis, and melt flow rate determination. It was the conclusion of the investigation that the part failed via brittle fracture, with evidence also...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0090451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
...Abstract Abstract Cracking occurred within the plastic jacket (injection molded from an impact-modified, 15% glass-fiber-reinforced PET resin.) of several assemblies used in a transportation application during an engineering testing regimen which involved cyclic thermal shock (exposing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0090466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... of the first lot of production parts. The mechanical hinges were specified to be injection molded from an impact-modified, 13% glass-fiber-reinforced nylon 6/6 resin. Investigation of samples representing the failed components and the original prototype parts included visual inspection, 118x SEM images, micro...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 4 -Na 2 SO 4 or NiSO 4 -Na 2 SO 4 liquids via reaction of CoO or NiO with SO 2 . Courtesy of Z. Tang and B. Gleeson, University of Pittsburgh Fig. 23 Effect of molten salt on hot corrosion at 700 °C (1290 °F) in air. With the lower melting temperatures of salt mixtures, the corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... The significant chlorine content determined by way of EDS suggested that the curing agent for the epoxy was chlorendic anhydride. This material, thermo-setting in nature, will not melt when exposed to elevated temperatures. Instead, the epoxy exhibits a glass transition temperature, or T g . This is the point...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of quartz and glass-filled polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slid against SiC, SiO 2 , and CaCO 3 abrasives as a function of filler volume fraction. The performance clearly depends on the ratio of hardness of the abrasives to the filler, the interfacial adhesion of the filler with the matrix PMMA, and volume...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0090463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... and reference parts. The results exhibit differences corresponding to a reduction in the glass transition of the failed material. Melt flow testing of the housing samples showed the submitted reference part to have a MFR of 39.7 g/10 min, compared with 78.1 g/10 min for the failed components. The nominal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are much weaker than primary bonds, as indicated in Table 1 , which accounts for the low melting temperatures, low stiffness, and low strength exhibited by many thermoplastic polymers. Thermoplastics can be melted by heating and will resolidify when cooled. Bond energies for various materials Table 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001901
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... melted away. Recognizing the translucent qualities of acetal polymers, and knowing that they have been favored in applications such as carburetors, floats, pump housings, and gears, the hypothesis was advanced that the part might be made from a polyoxymethylene (POM) that was depolymerizing during...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0090448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... heating run, as shown in Fig. 2 , exhibited an endothermic transition at 253 °C (487 °F), characteristic of the melting point of a PET resin. The initial heating run results also showed a low-temperature exothermic transition associated with the crystallization of the PET resin. These results indicated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0090445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... to the ABS resin from the spectrum obtained on the failed part. The spectral subtraction results were consistent with a thermoplastic polyester, such as PET or PBT. However, these two materials cannot be distinguished spectrally, because of similarities in their structures. As such, the melting point...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the type of molecule used to make the pipe material can be accomplished by IR spectroscopy or spectroscopic methods in general. With the chemical structure of the pipe established, the next property to address is the glass transition temperature, T g , and the melt temperature, T m , because...