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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract The spontaneous breakage of tempered glass spandrel panels used to cover concrete wall panels on building facades was investigated. Between January 1988 and August 1990, 19 panel failures were recorded. The tinted panels were coated on their exterior surfaces with a reflective...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... drives consists of a metal, glass, ceramic, or plastic substrate coated with a magnetic material. Data errors are classified as ‘soft’ or ‘hard’ depending on their correctability. Examination has shown that hard errors are the result of an abrasive wear process that begins with contact between head...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... broke within the solder joints. Rather, the termination consistently came apart from the substrate. A chip detail drawing ( Fig. 1 ) indicated that the chip substrate was high-purity alumina. The resistive element was a sintered thick film that was coated with a protective glass film after laser...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the former of these two parts of fractography. It presents the techniques of fractography and explains fracture markings using glass and ceramic examples. The article also discusses the fracture modes in ceramics and provides examples of fracture origins. ceramics crack pattern fractography fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract High-temperature corrosion can occur in numerous environments and is affected by various parameters such as temperature, alloy and protective coating compositions, stress, time, and gas composition. This article discusses the primary mechanisms of high-temperature corrosion, namely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... a conductive layer on the surface. The two most common are evaporation and sputter coating. Evaporation coating consists of heating a metal filament to a high temperature in a vacuum chamber to cause evaporation of the metal. Atoms that leave the filament travel in a line-of-sight trajectory to the surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a conventional SEM, several methods exist to produce a conductive layer on the surface. The two most common are evaporation and sputter coating. Evaporation coating consists of heating a metal filament to a high temperature in a vacuum chamber to cause evaporation to occur. Atoms that leave the filament travel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... the seacoast. A complete check was then made, both visually and with the aid of a low-power magnifying glass, of all coupling nuts of this type on the missile. Investigation (visual inspection, spectrographic and chemical analysis, and metallographic examination) supported the conclusion that the cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are from initial fatigue cracking, now coated with dark adherent oxide. This initial cracking took place some years prior to the later fracture, the surface of which is covered by a less adherent rust coating. As another example, when damage occurs by electrical discharge (for example, if a crane...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of steels). The two primary objectives are to minimize heat losses and to prevent various fluids and solids from coming in direct contact with the outer skin (again, most of the time, made of steels). Unlike thin organic linings and coatings, refractory linings may consist of one or many times two...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-free water and seawater, because there is limited cathodic reaction possible. If the surface of the metal is coated with paint or other nonconducting film, the rates of both anodic and cathodic reactions are greatly reduced, and corrosion will be retarded. A corrosion inhibitor is a substance...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the environment; change in the alloy or heat treatment; change in design; use of galvanic protection; use of inhibitors; use of nonmetallic coatings and liners; application of metallic coatings; use of surface treatments, thermal spray, or other surface modifications; corrosion monitoring; and preventive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... surface of the metal, this somewhat dramatic evidence would have been destroyed. Fig. 2 Bolt that failed in fatigue. The smooth dark areas are from initial fatigue cracking, now coated with dark adherent oxide. This initial cracking took place some years prior to the later fracture, the surface...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on the relative strength of intermolecular bonds and molecular structure or geometry. Noncrystalline polymers with weak intermolecular forces are usually elastomers or rubbers at temperatures above the glass transition temperature, T g . In contrast, polymers with strong hydrogen bonds and the possibility...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are concerned only with the steady state. Fig. 1 Effect of impact angle on erosion of aluminum and glass by 300 μm iron spheres at 10 m/s (34 ft/s) Fig. 2 Characteristic volume-loss rate versus time curves. (a) Type I. (b) Type II. (c) Type III. (d) Type IV The erosion of materials has...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... proximity, compressing and creasing the inter-coil insulation which consisted of woven glass fibre sheet. Visual evidence of short circuits was difficult to find due to the inaccessibility of the inner parts of the coils and tests were not conclusive. It seemed, probable, however, that due to displacement...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... Etchant - Kroll's Reagent (1–3 ml HF, 2–6 ml HNO 3 , and 85 ml H 2 O) 4. Replication Kit cellulose acetate replicating tape acetone glass slides double-backed adhesive tape 5. Miscellaneous cotton balls flashlight cotton swabs extension cord paper towels protective rubber...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the atmosphere, which can have a profound effect on the contact resistance. For separable connectors, gold plating appears to be the most satisfactory surface, although cheaper coatings are actively being sought ( Ref 30 ) and are discussed further in the section “Prevention of Fretting Damage” in this article...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... with tray 2, which was cooked in the claimant's oven. One quarter cup of cold water was placed in separate glass custard cups at each of the four corners in the center section of each oven. Using a stopwatch, the time required for the water to begin boiling was recorded for each cup position. The experiment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and epoxy-coal tar coatings work well up to 150 °C (300 °F), by preventing moisture (and chlorides) from reaching the surface. Although the column was used in diglycol amine vacuum service, previous service included pressurized operation. The pitted areas were approximately halfway up the column. Pits...