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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... in disk drives consists of a metal, glass, ceramic, or plastic substrate coated with a magnetic material. Data errors are classified as ‘soft’ or ‘hard’ depending on their correctability. Examination has shown that hard errors are the result of an abrasive wear process that begins with contact between...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... describes the former of these two parts of fractography. It presents the techniques of fractography and explains fracture markings using glass and ceramic examples. The article also discusses the fracture modes in ceramics and provides examples of fracture origins. ceramics crack pattern...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the ring and cone fracture is provided by the Hertz theory of elastic contact. Traditionally, Hertzian cone cracks have been most widely studied in flat, silicate glass plate, using spheres of hard steel or tungsten carbide. Extension to ceramics is becoming more prevalent, and the theory of Hertzian...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... surface and a solid color ceramic frit on the back surface. The installed glass differed from the specifications in three areas: (1) it was 5.6 MM ( 7 32 in.) thick rather than 6.4 mm ( 1 4 in.), (2) it was tempered instead of heat strengthened (as determined by photoelastic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., and manganese oxide are various glass formers and metal oxides used in forming a ceramic-to-metal bond on chip components, most likely the top land termination. The silver component may have been the metallic portion of the metallization, which enabled subsequent electro deposition of the nickel barrier...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... generation industries. The most common cause of premature failures of refractories is corrosion. However, corrosion is infrequently the cause of premature failure for technical ceramics. Corrosion of refractories occurs mainly when refractory materials are in contact with metallurgical slags or glasses...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
...Abstract Abstract Failure of a pilot scale test melter resulted from severe overheating of an Inconel 690 (690) jacketed molybdenum electrode. Extreme temperatures were required to melt the glass during this campaign because the feed material contained a very high waste loading. Metallurgical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The article concludes with a review of the evaluation of polymers and ceramic materials in failure analysis. Auger electron spectroscopy ceramic materials corrosion electron probe microanalysis energy dispersive spectroscopy failure analysis macroscopic examination metallographic specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Guidelines for semiautomatic preparation of structural ceramics Table 3 Guidelines for semiautomatic preparation of structural ceramics Step Base Diamond grade, μm Lubricant Speed, rpm Pressure Time, min N 16f Grinding Diamond disc 65 Water 300 ∼180 ∼40 Until flat Diamond...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... dissolves in the molten glass and reprecipitates as one or more compositionally modified crystalline phases. CMAS, calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicate. Reprinted with permission from Cambridge University Press Fig. 27 Concentration of predominant oxides of calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicates (CMAS...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... rapidly. Example 9 in this article shows how low-temperature crystallization was detected via DSC. Glass Transition in Amorphous Plastics Polymers that do not crystallize and semicrystalline materials having a significant level of amorphous segments undergo a phase change referred to as a glass...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for tribological applications. Figure 2 shows micrographs of oriented PTFE molecules deposited on the counterface after wear. Fig. 2 Micrographs of oriented PTFE films on the counterface. (a) PTFE transfer film on a glass slide. The film thickness varies between 50 and 500 nm, and sometimes it can show...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...: melting point, glass transition Adapted from Ref 17 Fig. 26 Impressed-current cathodic protection of a buried pipeline using graphite anodes. Source: Ref 13 Fig. 24 Examples of how design and assembly can affect localized corrosion by creating crevices and traps where corrosive...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that hard and brittle constituents of the microstructure are not fractured or microspalled by the abrasive forces. Under these circumstances, ferrous alloys containing hard carbides have good to excellent wear resistance. Ceramics and synthetic stone (e.g., fused silicates) are also used...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... debris formation, the proportion of plowing and cutting processes, the abrasive particle shape and size, the applied stress, and the hardness of the wear surface. For brittle materials (e.g., ceramics), a transition from a purely cutting mechanism to one that also involves fragmentation occurs when...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are concerned only with the steady state. Fig. 1 Effect of impact angle on erosion of aluminum and glass by 300 μm iron spheres at 10 m/s (34 ft/s) Fig. 2 Characteristic volume-loss rate versus time curves. (a) Type I. (b) Type II. (c) Type III. (d) Type IV The erosion of materials has...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and brittle fracture, fatigue, creep, and complex environmentally assisted cracking from stress-corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement) is in other articles in this Volume. Articles on the fractographic appearances of polymeric and ceramic materials are also included. Fractography of electronic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... energy, such as C because hydrocarbons are present on most surfaces. This charge correction method allows one to obtain useful chemical-state information from insulating samples. Common materials analyzed by XPS include metals, lubricants, semiconductors, metal oxides, glasses, ceramics, catalysts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-correction method allows one to obtain useful chemical-state information from insulating samples. Common materials analyzed by XPS include metals, lubricants, semiconductors, metal oxides, glasses, ceramics, catalysts, plastics/polymers, coatings/thin films, and paper. Because the technique is so...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of quartz and glass-filled polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slid against SiC, SiO 2 , and CaCO 3 abrasives as a function of filler volume fraction. The performance clearly depends on the ratio of hardness of the abrasives to the filler, the interfacial adhesion of the filler with the matrix PMMA, and volume...