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general corrosion

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048397
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... by the soft austenitic 304 stainless steel used to make the screws. The corrosion products of the plate were revealed by microprobe analysis to impregnate the surrounding tissues. Improper material selection was concluded to be the reason for the general corrosion behavior. Carbides Corrosion products...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., the A302 material was also susceptible to transgranular stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in the PAT environment if copper was present in solution. Specimen Selection Three elliptically shaped boat samples of the shell material were evaluated: Sample A from steam generator No. 2, which was cut...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., be used. Admiralty metal Ammonia, environment Cooling systems Heat exchanger tubes, corrosion Hydroelectric power generation C44300 UNS C44300 Pitting corrosion Stress-corrosion cracking Background A brass finned tube in a generator air cooler unit failed. Applications...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091703
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the ammonia (prohibitively expensive in cost and time) or using an alternate material (such as a 70Cu-30Ni alloy or a more expensive titanium alloy) that is resistant to ammonia corrosion as well as to chlorides and sulfur species. Air cooling Ammonia Hydroelectric generators Hydroelectric power...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... The containers were then filled with the slightly alkaline solution, pressurized, and allowed to stand under ambient conditions. A small number, less than 1%, were returned because they began to leak in service. Inspection revealed general corrosion and pitting on the inner surfaces. However, other tanks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., then the closed damper conducted heat from the chimney and reheated the condensate. Investigation (visual inspection and welded coupon testing) supported the conclusion that the corrosion was caused by “Green Death,” a corrosive medium used to test for pitting resistance (11.9% H2SO4 + 1.3% HCl + 1% FeCl3 + 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... revealed that voids generally grew in the wrought material by uniform general corrosion. Tunneling or worm-holing was also observed, whereby void extension occurred by initiating daughter voids probably at flaws or other inhomogeneities. Selective attack occurred within the fusion zone, i.e., within...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract A failed H-11 tool steel pylon attachment stud was found during a routine walk-around inspection. The stud exhibited gross localized corrosion pitting at several different areas on its surface. Light general rust was also evident. Severe pitting occurred near the fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001715
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... attributed to general corrosion, where the cross section of the wire is reduced until the strength of the wire is exceeded. Most of the failures evaluated were attributed to stress-corrosion cracking. Pipe Prestressed concrete Service life Splitting ASTM A648 Uniform corrosion Stress-corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... and chloride. Copper ions in solution should be eliminated or minimized. Chlorides Nuclear power generation Pressure vessels Welded joints ASME SA302-8 Stress-corrosion cracking A small leak was found in a nuclear steam-generator vessel constructed of 100-mm (4-in.) thick SA302, grade B, steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of the digester and of a proprietary high-nickel material on the bottom three-fourths. Examination revealed three distinct modes of deterioration. General corrosion was linked to the use of unspecified overlay metal. Cracking resulted during installation from the use of a material susceptible to hot cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that was denickelified (top) and unaffected base metal (bottom). Etched with equal parts nitric and acetic acid. 375× Abstract Abstract This article describes the characteristics of tubing of heat exchangers with respect to general corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, selective leaching, and oxygen-cell attack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... attached over most of its circumference. The basket also contained a 22-gauge Monel metal liner that had been perforated by stabbing, raising pronounced burrs that faced each hole. Apart from the local spots of corrosion due to the lining, the inner surface of the basket showed little evidence of general...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... examination of sections cut from the cracked area identified lamellar tearing as the principle cause of the cracking. This was surprising in 6 mm thick hull plates. Corrosion fatigue and general corrosion also contributed to hull plate perforation. Although it is probable that more lamellar tears exist near...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... was the most likely cause of failure. 439 Intergranular stress corrosion Postweld heat treatment Sensitization 430 UNS S43000 Intergranular fracture Stress-corrosion cracking Heat-Recovery Steam Generator Design Ferritic Stainless Steel Feedwater Economizer Design and Fabrication...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...). Corrosion-related deterioration was not found, indicating that the material was generally suitable for the intended service. High residual tensile stresses in the welds and HAZS, resulting from field welding under highly constrained conditions using inadequate weld procedures, were the most probable cause...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001072
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... exceptions, did not extend to the outer diameter edge. They appeared to nucleate 75 to 100 mm (3 to 4 in.) from the OD. The impeller passageways were heavily corroded and pitted from general corrosion, mostly oxidation. The outer surfaces were also corroded, but to a lesser degree. Figures 1 , 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of Heat Exchangers , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1986 , p 628 – 642 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817 The crater corrosion occurred at two general locations. One location was at the stop point of the welds used to connect the inlet and outlet...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... well protected. However, the inner surface of the pipe adjacent to the weld is seen to be uneven and pitted, indicative of corrosion. The pitting is broad and shallow and appears to have grown within an area of general corrosion, localized on the weld. The pit density was not calculated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... on mechanisms for corrosive wear. Next, the article explains testing methods and characterization of corrosive wear. Various factors that influence corrosive wear are then covered. The article concludes with general guidelines for material selection against corrosive wear. corrosion corrosive wear...