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general characteristics

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... It reviews the general characteristics of fretting wear, with an emphasis on steel. The review covers fretting wear in mechanical components, various parameters that affect fretting; quantification of wear induced by fretting; and the experimental results, map approach, measurement, mechanism, and prevention...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article reviews the general characteristics of fretting wear in mechanical components with an emphasis on steel. It focuses on the effects of physical variables and the environment on fretting wear. The variables include the amplitude of slip, normal load, frequency...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of environmentally induced cracking, this article deals only with SCC of metallic components. It begins by presenting terminology and background of SCC. Then, the general characteristics of SCC and the development of conditions for SCC as well as the stages of SCC are covered. The article provides a brief overview...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047479
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... steel tooth. Given the small critical crack sizes characteristic of ultrahigh-strength materials, it is generally unwise to weld them. It is particularly inadvisable to hardface ultrahigh-strength steel parts with hard, brittle, crack-prone materials when high service stresses will be encountered...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047428
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... steel tooth. Given the small critical crack sizes characteristic of ultrahigh-strength materials, it is generally unwise to weld them. It is particularly inadvisable to hardface ultrahigh-strength steel parts with hard, brittle, crack-prone materials when high service stresses will be encountered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the characteristics of fatigue fractures followed by a discussion on the effects of loading and stress distribution, and material condition on the microstructure of the material. In addition, general prevention and characteristics of corrosion fatigue, contact fatigue, and thermal fatigue are also presented...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract Corrosion in a closed-loop cooling water system constructed of austenitic stainless steel occurred during an extended lay up of the system with biologically contaminated water. The characteristics of the failure were those of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0048596
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... and the nut. The appearance of the fracture surfaces was characteristic of failure by low-cycle fatigue, with a smooth matte fatigue-failure region showing beach marks and generally extending over about 40 to 60% of the fracture surface, which indicated severe overload. The point of initiation of fatigue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0006897
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... wire failures had characteristics generally associated with corrosion fatigue. The broken wires showed multiple transgranular cracks near the failure, originating at the bases of pits. It was diagnosed that the copper tail wire failures were due to corrosion fatigue. The solution to this problem...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
.... Microscopical examination of sections through the cracks showed them to be filled with oxide and to be of the multi-branched type, having blunt terminations. The general nature of the cracks was characteristic of cracking from thermal or corrosion fatigue, as results from the operation of varying stresses...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001128
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... fracture was found to be characteristic of fracture toughness specimens. Creep crack growth generally followed the fusion line region and was characterized as dimpled fracture mixed with cavities. These fracture morphologies were similar to those of an actual steam pipe. It was concluded that creep crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the visual, fractographic, and metallographic evidence typically encountered when analyzing stress rupture of turbine airfoils. Stress-rupture fractures are generally heavily oxidized, tend to be rough in texture, and are primarily intergranular...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the characteristics of tubing of heat exchangers with respect to general corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, selective leaching, and oxygen-cell attack, with examples. It illustrates the examination of failed parts of heat exchangers by using sample...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article provides a discussion on the structural ceramics used in gas turbine components, the automotive and aerospace industries, or as heat exchangers in various segments of the chemical and power generation industries. It covers the fundamental aspects of chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the preliminary stages and general procedures, techniques, and precautions employed in the investigation and analysis of metallurgical failures that occur in service. The most common causes of failure characteristics are described for fracture, corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and metallurgical phenomena can impose brittle fracture characteristics on materials that would generally evince the more desirable ductile overload behavior. Brittle overload failures are typically differentiated by a primary crack that occurs from either transgranular or intergranular crack propagation, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is applicable to metallic materials, and only general information regarding creep-related failures of polymeric materials is given. Detailed information regarding the creep and creep-rupture characteristics of polymeric materials is provided in Engineering Plastics , Volume 2 of Engineered Materials Handbook...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the characteristics of explosive damage in aluminum. These have found applications in the detection of explosive sabotage of aircraft ( Ref 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ). The features described above and illustrated in Fig. 3 are general characteristics of explosive fracture. It has been reported that some features...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0091358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... stringers. A continuous line of attack that extended at least 0.58 mm (0.023 in.) below the surface of the metal is shown in Fig. 1 , which also illustrates the distribution and dimensions of the sulfide stringers generally characteristic of the three specimens that were examined metallographically...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001697
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... to the corrosion problem. Corrosion products testing revealed all forms of copper oxides on the inner and outer diametral surfaces of the copper, pipes ( Tables 3 & 4 ). The products included copper sulfates, carbonates, and oxides, indicating the general characteristics of the environment. The presence...