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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 2 Photograph of the surface which was in contact with the corrosive gases, showing extensive attack. More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 19 Overheating of the Steel Caused by Escaping Gases. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... of the fracture the grain boundaries were delineated as a near-continuous network of cavities and films of oxide. It was evident that the failure of the rivets in service was attributable to intergranular weakness in the material due to gassing. Boilers Gases Arsenical tough-pitch copper Intergranular...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract A tie rod, nut, and bellows from a failed 610 mm (24 in.) diam tied universal expansion joint that carried tail gases consisting of N 2 + O 2 with slight traces of nitrogen oxides and water were examined. The materials were SA 193-B7 (AISI 4140), SA 194–214, and Incoloy 800H...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Decarburization of steel may occur as skin decarburization by gases either wet or containing oxygen, and as a deep ongoing destruction of the material by hydrogen under high pressure. Guidelines are given for recognizing decarburization and determining at what point cracks occurred...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Cartridge-pneumatic starter systems are used on military aircraft. In the cartridge mode used for alert starts, the starter turbine is driven by hot gases produced through the controlled burning of a solid propellant cartridge within a closed chamber (the breech chamber/cartridge...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... for local pitting bursting. Nonuniform heat transfer in Stage 3 operation accelerated the selective corrosion of front-end tubes. The relatively high heat transfer in this stage resulted in condensation of some corrosive gases and consequent corrosion. Continuous operation of the plant with some precautions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... pressures of the gases within the duct, combined with the high temperatures, facilitated nitrogen pickup. No recommendations were made. Intergranular precipitation Oxidation Spalling Inconel 317 UNS N06617 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation The presence of carbides and carbonitrides...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... 1150 deg C. This type of selective oxidation at which the easily oxidized chromium burns, while the nickel is not attacked, is caused by mildly oxidizing gases and is sometimes designated as green rot. Under these conditions, chromium-containing steels and alloys whose oxidation resistance is based...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract Three radially-cracked disks that circulated the protective gases in a bell-type annealing furnace were examined. During service they had been heated in cycles of 48 h to 720 deg C for 3 h each time, then were kept at temperature for 15 h followed by cooling to 40 deg C in 30 h, while...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001696
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... that settles on exposed surfaces as they are being subjected to severe mechanical loads imparted during lift-off. Failure analyses were performed on 304 stainless steel tubing that ruptured under such conditions, while carrying various gases, including nitrogen, oxygen, and breathing air. Hydrostatic testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0065826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... Abstract The wires used in a wet precipitator for cleaning the gases coming off a basic oxygen furnace failed. The system consisted of six precipitators, three separate dual units, each composed of four zones. Each zone contained rows of wires (cold drawn AISI 1008 carbon steel) suspended...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... gases to shunt across the preheater/exchanger. Metallographic examination of the plates showed that accelerated internal oxidation had been the cause of failure. Corrosion racks of candidate alloys (types 304, 309, and 316 stainless steels, Inconel 600, Inconel 625, Incoloy 800, Incoloy 825, and Inco...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A type 321 stainless steel downcomer expansion joint that handled process gases was found to be leaking approximately 2 to 3 weeks after installation. The expansion joint was the second such coupling placed in the plant after failure of the original bellows. The failed joint...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... used was not adequate to guarantee the operating life of the blades due to excess sulfur trioxide, carbon, and sodium in the combustion gases, which caused pitting. A molten salt environmental cracking mechanism was also a factor and was enhanced by the working stresses and by the presence of silicon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...) in a catalyst tube to form a mixture of CO 2 , CO, H 2 , and CH 4 gases. These gases are then cooled to 400 to 425 °C (750 to 800 °F) in the quench pot vessel by mixing the gases with a water spray over a series of pall rings. Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of the quench pot pressure vessel. Fig. 1...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Schematic of the air preheater showing the different stages and the direction of air and flue gases (note the part of the outer shield is shown in open to reveal the pipes) More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the powder to solidify under pressure, but at the same time releases water vapors, phenol, ammonia, and several other gases into the air in the factory. Some of these vapors and gases are retained in the wood flour in the cases and covers. Discussion The formation of films can occur during assembly...
Image
Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 1 Wellhead flow control valve body, 3″ID 2500# A216-WCC, the body carries sour gases with a high wet H 2 S content (24,000 ppm). The maximum working pressure is 1100 psi More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (solids, S, + liquid, L, type of reaction), but atmosphere corrosion also occurs under specific circumstances (under reducing or oxido-reducing conditions), as, for example, under attack from carbon monoxide or alkalis and other condensable gases (S + gas, G, type of reaction). Corrosion of technical...