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gaseous corrosion

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Fig. 1 Section of the alloy 800 by pass liner showing severe metal wastage on the inner surface. Fig. 2 Surface characteristics of the wasted areas, similar to erosion/corrosion damage. 13×. Fig. 5 Micrograph of unaffected areas, showing the composite grain structure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the interaction with gamma radiation) and to prevent corrosion. A number of failures have occurred over the years because of a loss of the He cover gas in the assembly. This has resulted in either acid attack on the Inconel 600 sheath in a wet environment or gaseous corrosion in a dry environment. In the latter...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0060104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Eddy current inspection was performed on a vertical evaporator unit (that contained 180 tubes) used in a chemical processing plant. It was advised that the tube material was type 316 stainless steel. The shell-side fluid was condensate and gaseous methylene chloride, while the tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... The cracked part of the tube, containing two parallel through-thickness cracks Fig. 3 Collage of photographs showing the observed cracks as viewed from (a) the internal (gas–side) and (b) the external surface of the tube Fig. 13 Corrosion rate of Monel 400 as a function of HCl...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... is expected to last another 5 to 8 years, compared with the 1 year life for the type 309 unit. The cause of failure was gaseous corrosion. Type 309 stainless steel lacks the high percentage of nickel necessary to guard against corrosion by the HCl, Cl 2 , and combustion gases present in the system at 760...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (land-based, marine shipboard, and aircraft). Predicting corrosion of metals and alloys or coated alloys is often difficult because of the range of composition of the corrosive gaseous or molten environments. Moreover, corrosion prediction is further complicated, because materials often degrade...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., gaseous corrosion in the presence of condensed deposits, and reduction or oxidation by hot gases, CO (G), H 2 (G), H 2 S (G), and H 2 O (G). High-temperature oxidation in air or oxygen is the most important type of corrosion for carbide- and nitride-based ceramics. Although the corrosion of structural...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001374
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., the absence of corrosion product in the gouged area, the adherent, protective corrosion product on adjacent surfaces, and the uniform metal loss observed microscopically. Erosion-corrosion is a synergistic form of attack wherein liquid or gaseous erosion is assisted by corrosion and vice versa. The result...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... surfaces confined to the HAZs of the welds. Microscopic examination of sections transverse to the weld cracks showed severe intergranular corrosion in the HAZ. The fractures appeared to be caused by loss of corrosion resistance due to sensitization, that could have been induced by the temperatures attained...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Fig. 2 Sample showing cracking in and around the peripheral tubes, as well as in the area of the floating tube sheet. Fig. 3 Corroded hole through the wall the tube core. Fig. 4 Microstructure showing end-grain corrosion in the explosively bonded outer E-Brite layer. Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... enhanced when the hydrogen is present in combination with residual or applied tensile stresses. Many types of hydrogen damage are not due to corrosion processes at all. However, because hydrogen damage has many similarities regardless of the source of the hydrogen, damage processes caused by corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... during corrosion in sour environments. The presence of hydrogen sulfide in the environment promotes hydrogen absorption into steel, thereby making the environment more severe and thus more likely to cause hydrogen embrittlement. Although hydrogen sulfide gas, like gaseous hydrogen, can cause...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., gaseous carbon compounds, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and other gases from the environment into the interior of metal parts is also a major source of stress in service. Corrosion Product Wedging The formation of corrosion products by local attack in confined spaces produces high stress levels...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... surface of these tubes, and Fig. 10 shows the ductile nature of the material being removed. Sulfuric acid could develop if moisture was present, and some corrosion could have occurred after the tubes were perforated. In liquid or gaseous SO 2 , the low carbon steel would exhibit good corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... or coated alloys at high temperatures is often difficult because of the extreme range of composition of the corrosive gaseous and/or fluid environments. Moreover, corrosion predictions are further complicated, because materials have inhomogeneous processing-derived features such as precipitates...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A microstructural analysis has been made of a burner nozzle removed from service in a coal gasification plant. The nozzle was a casting of a Co-29wt%Cr-19wt%Fe alloy. Extensive hot corrosion had occurred on the surface. There was penetration along grain boundaries, and corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... indicated that the failures were the result of hydrogen embrittlement produced by galvanic corrosion and attendant evolution of hydrogen at the dissimilar junction, which was also the site of the highest tensile stress. Suggested measures for minimizing recurrences included use of lower-strength...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... conditioner failure investigation—intergranular cracking in a pure copper condenser tube . J. Fail. Anal. Preven. 5 ( 1 ), 79 – 85 ( 2005 ) 10.1361/15477020522122 9. Bianchi G.L. , Galvele J.R. : Stress corrosion cracking of pure copper and pure silver in gaseous environments...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... , and formaldehyde. The various combinations of these fluids, mixed with water vapor, were introduced into a series of stress-corrosion load cells, using bolts at yield point loads. Each cell was charged three times per day, with no failures incurred until the gaseous atmosphere was heated to 60°C (140°F) prior...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... from coal-based thermal power plants. With coal as the fuel, there are two distinct technologies used for power generation: subcritical and supercritical. Supercritical is that state of a substance in which there is no clear distinction between the liquid and gaseous phase (i.e., it behaves...