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gas segregation

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 7 Gas bubble segregation, longitudinal section, etch: Nital. 100 × More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... particles and oxide film discontinuities ( Fig. 3 ). In addition, the structure showed pockets of gas voids in chain form, which appeared as cracklike discontinuities ( Fig. 4 ). Microexamination of the raw material confirmed the presence of gas voids, mostly in chain form, and zones of segregation ( Fig. 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0089543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... Abstract Threads of a bone screw (Co-Cr-Mo alloy, type ASTM F75) had broken off, and other threads had cracked. 15x sectioning showed porosity, and 155x magnification showed gas holes, segregation, and dissolved oxides. This supports the conclusion that manufacturing defects caused the failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... that chemical segregation contributed to the hard areas. Postweld normalized heat treatment apparently did not sufficiently reduce the hardness of these areas. Oil field equipment, corrosion Pipe, corrosion Sour gas, environment Sulfide stress cracking Sulfides, environment Welded joints, corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., alloying additive Nickel steel - 9Ni Nickel steels Segregations 9 steel Intergranular fracture Casting-related failures Background The 9% Ni steels have been widely used for cryogenic applications, as in storage vessels and related components for liquid natural gas. Castings of 9% Ni steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of die-cast ZAMAC 3 solenoid valve seats during commissioning of the system in which they were installed. Applications The zinc-aluminum alloy ZAMAK 3 is used in die casting of solenoid valve seats. The solenoid valves are used to regulate the gas flow in pressure systems. Circumstances Leading...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 7 Retrieved screw of cast cobalt-chromium.molybdenum alloy (type ASTM F75). (a) Defective screw threads from casting deficiencies. (b) Longitudinal section through threads showing porosity. 15×. (c) Enlarged thread of section shown in (b) with gas holes, segregation of primary phases More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 10 Retrieved screw of cast Co-Cr-Mo alloy (type ASTM F75). (a) Defective screw threads from casting deficiencies. (b) Longitudinal section through threads showing porosity. 15×. (c) Enlarged thread of section shown in (b) with gas holes, segregation of primary phases, and dissolved oxides More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Retrieved screw of cast Co-Cr-Mo alloy (type ASTM F75). (a) Defective screw threads from casting deficiencies. (b) Longitudinal section through threads showing porosity. 15×. (c) Enlarged thread of section shown in (b) with gas holes, segregation of primary phases, and dissolved oxides More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., shown in Fig. 1 , is a bent tube (elbow) that is used to transfer a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons into a burner at the end of a process line. The fuel gas also contains hydrochloric acid (HCl), which is scrubbed off by reacting with a caustic NaOH solution inside a reaction tower. The scrubbed stream...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
.... 4 Fracture of a heat treated disk. 2 × Fig. 5 Fracture of piston rod of 120 mm diameter. approx. 2 3 × Gas bubble segregations could be seen ( Fig. 6 ) in a transverse section parallel to the fracture after etching with copper ammonium chloride solution and in sulfur...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0047645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract An outer fan-duct assembly of titanium alloy Ti-5Al-2.5Sn (AMS 4910) for a gas-turbine fan section cracked 75 mm (3 in.) circumferentially through a repair weld in an arc weld in the front flange-duct segment. Examination of the crack with a binocular microscope revealed no evidence...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by gas carburizing, but several studies have documented bending fatigue crack initiation by IG fracture even in the absence of surface oxidation ( Ref 16 ). It may also be facilitated by the rather large prior austenite grain size resulting from the carburizing cycle. Not only do the fatigue cracks...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... areas. (h) Seams that develop from elongated trapped-gas pockets or from cracks during working. (j) Laps when excessive material is squeezed out and turned back into the material. (k) Chevron or internal bursts. See text for additional discussions. It must be clearly recognized that manufactured...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with the combined presence of segregated phosphorus and cementite at prior-austenite grain boundaries. The IG cracking may be associated with other microstructural features, such as the surface oxides generated by gas carburizing, but several studies have documented bending fatigue crack initiation by IG fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... (such as pickling and electroplating) and would not be helpful in removing hydrogen introduced during steelmaking. Excessive gas contents in ingots are most serious when oxide inclusions are present. Inclusions provide sites for the agglomeration of gas; thus, molten alloys are often treated to reduce...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... Abstract A roadarm for a tracked vehicle failed during preproduction vehicle testing. The arm was a weldment of two cored low-alloy steel sand castings specified to ASTM A 148, grade 120–95. A maximum carbon content of 0.32% was specified. The welding procedure called for degreasing and gas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract This case study describes the failure analysis of a steel nozzle in which cracking was observed after a circumferential welding process. The nozzle assembly was made from low-carbon CrMoV alloy steel that was subsequently single-pass butt welded using gas tungsten arc welding. Although...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0091048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract A welded ferritic stainless steel heat exchanger cracked prior to service. The welding filler metal was identified as an austenitic stainless steel and the joining method as gas tungsten arc welding. Investigation (visual inspection, SEM images, 5.9x images, and 8.9x/119x images etched...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048399
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... and had segregations in the microstructure and gas holes and precipitates in the grain boundaries ( Fig. 1c ). The nut was not specifically loaded and did not fail. The other broken pin was made from a cold-worked cobalt-chromium alloy. The grain boundaries contained few precipitates, but lines...