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gas porosity

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Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 58 Gas porosity in electron beam welds of low-carbon steel and titanium alloy. (a) Gas porosity in a weld in rimmed AISI 1010 steel. Etched with 5% nital. 30×. (b) Massive voids in weld centerline of 50 mm (2 in.) thick titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. 1.2× More
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 30 Aluminum casting exhibiting gas porosity More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the effects of load frequency and temperature, material condition, and manufacturing practices on fatigue strength. It provides information on subsurface discontinuities, including gas porosity, inclusions, and internal bursts as well as on corrosion fatigue testing to measure rates of fatigue-crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... for cleaning and surface preparation, as well as for the actual plating deposition. Porosity that is linked to the surface can trap liquids from the cleaning and surface preparation baths, and these liquids are usually quite acidic. The trapped acid may initiate corrosion and generate hydrogen gas as a result...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 29 Discontinuities that may be encountered in semisolid processing, (a) Surface blisters. 75×. (b) Cold shuts. 225×. (c) Nonfill. 0.5×. (d) Hot tears. 75×. (e) Shrinkage porosity. 40×. (f) Gas porosity. 100× More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 35 Radiograph showing cluster porosity in gas metal arc welding process due to disruption of shielding gas. Incomplete penetration (IP) of the weld root is also shown. More
Image
Published: 01 December 1993
, and iron. 56.95×. (c) Higher-magnification view of fracture surface next to crater. Surface texture is not typical of hydrogen embrittlement. 578×. (d) Higher-magnification view of crater. Texture is very rough and not typical of gas porosity Analysis of small particles within the crater was not possible More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0089543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... Abstract Threads of a bone screw (Co-Cr-Mo alloy, type ASTM F75) had broken off, and other threads had cracked. 15x sectioning showed porosity, and 155x magnification showed gas holes, segregation, and dissolved oxides. This supports the conclusion that manufacturing defects caused the failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0089563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... reveals internal voids, such as gas porosity or shrinkage porosity, but does not detect a crack or a cold shut, unless the plane of the imperfection is nearly parallel to the x-ray beam and unless there is a finite opening; a cold shut that has its faces in contact is rarely revealed by radiography...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract An unacceptable degree of porosity was identified in several closure welds on stainless steel containers for plutonium-bearing materials. The pores developed in the weld tie-in region due to gas trapped by the weld pool during the closure process. This paper describes the efforts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Some examples are ISO 6157, BPS-F-69, SAE 123, NAS 496, and ASTM F 788. Gas Porosity Gas porosity is indicated by rounded voids caused by precipitation of gas bubbles in molten material during casting ( Fig. 30 ). Fig. 30 Aluminum casting exhibiting gas porosity Shrinkage Porosity...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001368
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... cleavage river markings were not present. The texture of the crater was rough and contained smaller unknown particles, atypical of gas pockets or porosity. It appeared that this was an unusual forging defect. Fig. 5 Subsurface flaw away from ridges. (a) Fracture surface away from ridges and toward...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at the weld toe Cracks—hot or cold, longitudinal or transverse, crater and at weld toe Gas porosity Arc strike Spatter Backing piece left on: failure to remove material placed at the root of a weld joint to support molten weld metal Subsurface features that are causes for rejection...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to reach the interdendritic areas of the casting where shrinkage is occurring and where gas is being evolved. However, because this type of porosity occurs late in solidification, particularly in long-range freezing (mushy-freezing) alloys, it is particularly difficult to eliminate. The most effective...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Casting surface irregularities D 110 Fold markings on the skin of the casting D 111 Fold markings over rather large areas of the casting Surface folds, gas runs D 112 Surface shows a network of jagged folds or wrinkles (ductile iron) Cope defect, elephant skin, laps D 113 Wavy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... may cause density variations on a radiograph. When possible, they should be removed before a weld is radiographed; when impossible to remove, they must be considered during radiography interpretation. Subsurface Discontinuities Subsurface discontinuities detectable by radiography include gas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0047263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... through the defect indicated shrinkage porosity. This defect was found to interconnect the water jacket and the exhaust gas flow chamber. No cracks were found by magnetic-particle inspection. The gray iron cylinder head had a hardness of 229 HRB on the surface of the bottom deck. The microstructure...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
of porosity (primary shrinkage and gas) in a fractured aluminum die casting More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001908
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... the liquid metal flows at high speeds, causing erosion of the mold or die cavity. 1 These defects can also be caused by extended mold usage or die wear and are open to the surface, resulting in decreased structural integrity. Gas holes (porosity) are generally formed by an excessive amount of gas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and instituting receiving inspection of the connection castings. Castings Porosity Trailers Trucks Welded defects Welded joints Welded steel Joining-related failures Casting-related failures Fatigue fracture A drawbar connecting the two tank-type trailers of a highway gasoline rig broke while...