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gas dissociation

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... The hot-gas wall is at the top. (a) Massive deformation forms pinholes. 42.5×. (b) Minimal grain-boundary separation. 85×. Fig. 4 Micrographs of the banded region of the MCC. (a) Cracking and grain-boundary separation, back scatter mode. 296×. (b) Dissociated intermetallics with compositions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
..., the carbide has been dissociated and become metal and carbon. References References 1. Ortiz U. , Aguilar J. , Cavaros J.L. , and Viramortes R. . Carburization of HP40 and AISI 304 Alloys by Reducing Gas Atmospheres , International Symposium on Low Carbon Steels for the 90's...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... graphite structure with very little type B and no type A graphite. Figure 3(a) illustrates the graphite formations. Near the gas defect, temper carbon ( Fig. 3b ) was detected. Temper carbon gives evidence that the primary carbides had dissociated due to a heat treatment. In the area slightly removed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001712
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... been pulled into the rolls during thermal cycling. This atmosphere may still contain a small percentage of undissociated ammonia in addition to nitrogen and hydrogen gas. Stagnant gas within the tube would allow nitrogen to dissociate on the metal surface. This process might be further enhanced...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at the weld toe Cracks—hot or cold, longitudinal or transverse, crater and at weld toe Gas porosity Arc strike Spatter Backing piece left on: failure to remove material placed at the root of a weld joint to support molten weld metal Subsurface features that are causes for rejection...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses on the life assessment methods for elevated-temperature failure mechanisms and metallurgical instabilities that reduce life or cause loss of function or operating time of high-temperature components, namely, gas turbine blade, and power plant piping and tubing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract High temperature corrosion may occur in numerous environments and is affected by factors such as temperature, alloy or protective coating composition, time, and gas composition. This article explains a number of potential degradation processes, namely, oxidation, carburization...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... become hydrated to form calcium hydroxide [ 5 ]. This hydrated lime when added to the liquid melt decomposes according to the reaction (Eq 1) Ca OH 2 s = CaO s + H 2 O g The water vapor formed dissociates on the liquid steel surface causing hydrogen pickup...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... contamination obscures much of the underlying surface of interest, inert gas sputtering can be employed to remove at least some of the obstructing contamination layer. Care must be taken to avoid sputter removing too much of the sample, or the surface of interest will also be removed. Typically, only a few...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and the heating of steam in a superheater or reheater. The heat-flow path through a clean boiler tube has three components. First, fire-side heat transfer from the flame or hot flue gases is by both radiation and convection. Radiation predominates in the furnace, where the gas temperatures may be close to 1650 °C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... or hot water. Power boilers using pulverized coal, fuel oil, or natural gas as the fuel are used in thermal power plants to produce steam for generation of electricity. They are very large in size and are operated at high pressure and temperature in order to produce high-pressure, high-temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...- and cobalt-base alloys and precious metals (gold, platinum, and palladium). These filler materials, when used with improved atmospheres such as ultradry hydrogen and vacuum and equipment such as vacuum furnaces with gas-quenching capabilities, have raised the upper-temperature brazing limit to above 1650 °C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... ( Ref 9 ). Hydrogen gas is dissociated by the arc to form elemental hydrogen and dissolved by the molten weld puddle and by the adjacent region in the HAZ. In the supersaturated state, the hydrogen diffuses to regions of high stress, in which it can initiate a crack. Continued diffusion of hydrogen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... agitation causes temperature gradients within workload and part May not be uniform Rolling on surface is poor guide to agitation Must be measured or modeled Type of quenchant Brine, water, oil, polymer, gas, air Quench rate must be fast enough to achieve desired properties...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the casting Surface folds, gas runs D 112 Surface shows a network of jagged folds or wrinkles (ductile iron) Cope defect, elephant skin, laps D 113 Wavy fold markings without discontinuities; edges of folds at same level, casting surface is smooth Seams or scars D 114 Casting surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Casting surface irregularities D 110 Fold markings on the skin of the casting D 111 Fold markings over rather large areas of the casting Surface folds, gas runs D 112 Surface shows a network of jagged folds or wrinkles (ductile iron) Cope defect, elephant skin, laps D 113 Wavy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...-induced dissociation; SED, secondary electron detector; GCIB, gas cluster ion beam; FIB, focused ion beam; LMIG, liquid metal ion gun. Courtesy of Physical Electronics Inc., Chanhassen, MN Fig. 4 Nonconductive material imaged using (a) conventional scanning electron microscopy, (b) low-pressure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... preventing cell adhesion and killing bacteria ( Ref 215 ). Coatings N-halamine-containing polymers Excellent antimicrobial properties without any environmental concerns and long-term stability. They promote the direct transfer of active moiety to the target site or by dissociating into free halogen...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006920
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... A * The energy-rich excited molecule typically releases the energy in the form of a photon (fluorescence or phosphorescence) or in the form of heat and falls back into its ground state without any damage. However, the excited chromophore may have sufficient energy for bond dissociation or to abstract a hydrogen...