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gas carburizing

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0092148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Occasional failures were experienced in spool-type valves used in a hydraulic system. When a valve would fail, the close-fitting rotary valve would seize, causing loss of flow control of the hydraulic oil. The rotating spool in the valve was made of 8620 steel and was gas carburized...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract Two intermediate impeller drive gears (made of AMS 6263 steel, gas carburized, hardened, and tempered) exhibited evidence of pitting and abnormal wear after production tests in test-stand engines. The gears were examined for hardness, case depth, and microstructure of case and core...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of a case layer. This oversight combined with the observation of intergranular fracture surfaces and the presence of secondary microcracks in the case layer point to hydrogen embrittlement as the primary cause of failure. It is likely that hydrogen absorption occurred during the gas carburizing process...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... matrix and outlining of prior-austenite grains by a network of fine, white lines. These features indicated that the material had been transformed by carburization by the impinging gas. The outer surface exhibited a heavy scale deposit and numerous cracks that originated at the surface of the tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... operating stress if they had been welded satisfactorily and hardened correctly, and whether it made any sense to case harden highly stressed chains of this type. Chains Gas carburizing Wear Welded joints Steel chain Joining-related failures (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified) wear Heat...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048261
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... fillets as a result of through hardening. Dimensions given in inches The ring gear, machined from a forged blank made of 4817 steel, had been gas carburized at 925 °C (1700 °F), cooled to 815 °C (1500 °F), press quenched in oil at 60 °C (140 °F), then tempered at 175 °C (350 °F) for 1 1 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... to have a lower case depth, carburize less deeply, and prevent overheating that causes brittleness and leads also to increased case depth, or else use a fine-grained steel of lower hardenability. Case depth Cracking (fracturing) Gas carburizing Overheating Sleeves C15 Heat treating-related...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0048257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of AMS 6263 steel and was gas carburized to produce a case 0.4 to 0.6 mm (0.015 to 0.025 in.) deep. Investigation Sections of the gear were removed and examined for hardness, case depth, and microstructure of case and core. The results of the examination and the specified requirements were...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... widely used gear materials. Consequently, steel gears receive primary consideration in this article. Among the through-hardening steels in wide use are 1040, 1060, 4140, and 4340. These steels can also be effectively case hardened by induction heating. Among the carburizing steels used in gears...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by gas carburizing, but several studies have documented bending fatigue crack initiation by IG fracture even in the absence of surface oxidation ( Ref 16 ). It may also be facilitated by the rather large prior austenite grain size resulting from the carburizing cycle. Not only do the fatigue cracks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with the combined presence of segregated phosphorus and cementite at prior-austenite grain boundaries. The IG cracking may be associated with other microstructural features, such as the surface oxides generated by gas carburizing, but several studies have documented bending fatigue crack initiation by IG fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... may be the result of segregation, or it may be the result of processing, as in a carburized part. Such inhomogeneities may produce a variation in transformation temperature at locations that are geometrically equivalent and that cool at the same rate. Nonuniform transformational stresses that result...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... if a nonuniform composition exists; this nonuniformity may be the result of segregation, or it may be the result of processing, as in a carburized part. Such inhomogeneities may produce a variation in transformation temperature at locations that are geometrically equivalent and that cool at the same rate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... agitation causes temperature gradients within workload and part May not be uniform Rolling on surface is poor guide to agitation Must be measured or modeled Type of quenchant Brine, water, oil, polymer, gas, air Quench rate must be fast enough to achieve desired properties...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... on the inner surfaces. Carburization appeared to have been caused by a buildup of carbon, which was deposited during service through breakdown of an oil contaminant in the nitrogen gas. This condition was observed in all of the piping. The microstructure was normal for annealed type 347 stainless steel...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... keyways, and grooves. One illustration of this problem is hardening of a shaft over a lubrication cross hole, as illustrated in Fig. 28 ( Ref 22 ). Preferred alternative designs are also shown in Fig. 28 . If a radial cross hole is mandatory, the use of carburized steel with oil quenching would...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... precipitation in microstructure [ 9 ]. A mixture of gas, air and steam that promotes the formation of surface oxide layer is commonly used as decoking gas in petrochemical plants. In coking/decoking cycles, tubes are subjected to thermal fatigue and deposited coke swept away by decoking gas [ 3 ]. After...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... by the presence of ledeburite. Here also the basic microstructure consists of pearlite. Accordingly, the weldseam has carburized to over 2% C in places with consequent hardening. Even though it is of no significance for the present problem, let it be mentioned in passing that the weldseam is permeated with gas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... produced in an oxidizing environment is less corrosive than carbon monoxide (CO), which is the prevalent carbonaceous gaseous species in a reducing environment. Under simultaneous oxidizing and carburizing conditions, where hydrocarbons are present in the gas stream and/or with the introduction of oily...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
..., carburization as an initiation condition for metal dusting was found. The welding protrusion will change laminar flow of the gas, to turbulent flow. The solid particles in the turbulent gas, will remove the chromia layer behind the welding protrusion and weaken the resistance of the pipe surface...