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gas atomization

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to the transfer of energy from the argon atoms results in limited chemical-state information during profiling. This is especially true in polymer depth profiling, where the chemical makeup of organics quickly degrades during monatomic ion bombardment. The addition of the inert gas cluster ion beam to XPS...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... are the common powder-bed AM techniques. Most metal powders used for AM processing are produced using water, plasma, and gas atomization. The different atomization techniques produce different powder characteristics, which can enhance or diminish AM processing. Additive manufacturing benefits from homogeneous...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... molecular hydrogen (H 2 ). This problem is frequently encountered after steel processing and welding; it has been termed flaking or fisheyes. Atomic hydrogen can also react with a foreign element in the matrix to form a gas. A principal example is the reaction with carbon in low-alloy steels to form methane...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ). This problem is frequently encountered after steel processing and welding; it has been termed flaking or fisheyes. Atomic hydrogen can also react with a foreign element in the matrix to form a gas. A principal example is the reaction with carbon in low-alloy steels to form methane (CH 4 ) bubbles. Another...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... Some of the blisters were pierced by drilling a hole in the center and at the same time applying a small flame. In several cases combustion of the escaping gas caused minor explosions, a result characteristic of hydrogen. Etching showed the material to be a low-carbon steel in the partly spheroidized...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... molecular hydrogen nor methane is capable of diffusing through steel, so the gases accumulate, primarily at the grain boundaries. Eventually, gas pressures cause separation of the metal at its grain boundaries, producing discontinuous intergranular separation (fissures). As fissures accumulate, tube...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... covers the operating principles, applications, advantages, and disadvantages of optical emission spectroscopy (OES), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), X-ray spectroscopy, and ion chromatography (IC). In addition, information on combustion analysis and inert gas fusion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... materials is to employ variable-pressure SEM (VP-SEM) ( Ref 2 – 4 ). For this purpose, VP-SEM instruments operate with a specimen chamber filled with enough inert gas or vapor molecules at a pressure of ~10 to 2500 Pa to be ionized by the electron beam and neutralize charging. A valve system is designed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... In this type of microscope, the pressure in the sample chamber is raised to a value on the order of 10 to 250 Pa (0.1 to 2 torr). Interaction of the electron beam with gas molecules in the region where the beam strikes the sample effectively creates a positively charged “cloud” of ions above the surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... low- or variable-pressure microscopes. In this type of microscope, the pressure in the sample chamber is raised to a value on the order of 0.1 to 1 torr. Interaction of the electron beam with gas molecules in the region where the beam strikes the sample effectively creates a positively charged “cloud...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., when excessive atmospheric or handling contamination obscures much of the underlying surface of interest, inert gas sputtering can be employed to remove at least some of the obstructing contamination layer. Care must be taken to prevent sputter removing too much of the sample, or the surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0006899
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... exceed 70 N · m (600 in. · lb). In flooded manholes, the galvanic-corrosion reaction between zinc (galvanizing) and stainless steel can generate hydrogen at the stainless steel cathode. The rate at which absorbed hydrogen on the cathode combines to form H 2 gas is affected by the catalytic properties...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., hydrogen is generated during rapid corrosion of the inner diameter surface. Atomic hydrogen can diffuse into the metal and combine with carbon from iron carbides to form methane, or with other hydrogen atoms to form molecular hydrogen. These large gas molecules become trapped and produce very high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in the SEM chamber. However, the greater gas pressure in the chamber also causes scattering of the electron beam prior to striking the sample surface. Thus, in the variable-pressure mode, the area of beam interaction can be much larger than expected for high-vacuum conditions, as shown by the Monte Carlo...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract A 76 mm (3 in.) type 304 stainless steel tube that was used as a heat shield and water nozzle support in a hydrogen gas plant quench pot failed in a brittle manner. Visual examination of a sample from the failed tube showed that one lip of the section was eroded from service failure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... as with PVC. With respect to identifying adsorbed chemicals in plastics, since the chemical is adsorbed, it can usually be extracted in some way and identified. In some cases, simply heating the plastic will drive off the chemical, which can be collected and fed into a gas chromatograph (GC) or a GC/mass...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract High temperature corrosion may occur in numerous environments and is affected by factors such as temperature, alloy or protective coating composition, time, and gas composition. This article explains a number of potential degradation processes, namely, oxidation, carburization...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006867
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... will drive out the chemical, which can be collected and fed into a gas chromatograph (GC) or a GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system for analysis. Sometimes extraction using a second chemical solvent is necessary, one that is a better solvent for the plasticizer than the polymer is. The extract can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... at 25 °C (77 °F) °C °F 1 30 –169 (a) –272 (a) Gas 6 170 –12 (a) 10 (a) Liquid 35 1,000 37 99 Grease 140 4,000 93 199 Wax 250 7,000 98 208 Hard wax 430 12,000 104 219 Plastic 750 21,000 110 230 Plastic 1,350 38,000 112 234 Plastic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by gas carburizing, but several studies have documented bending fatigue crack initiation by IG fracture even in the absence of surface oxidation ( Ref 16 ). It may also be facilitated by the rather large prior austenite grain size resulting from the carburizing cycle. Not only do the fatigue cracks...