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galvanically coupled differential flow cell

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... separated in the galvanic series, there is a greater flow of current than for metals with small difference in potential. The galvanic series also allows one to determine which metal or alloy in a galvanic couple is more active. Metals that are more anodic in a given galvanic cell are prone to corrode...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and connected by an electrolyte, a galvanic current flows between them because of the inherent electrical potential difference between the two. The resulting reaction is referred to as couple action, and the electrically coupled system is known as a galvanic cell. The dissimilar metals/materials couple consists...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... dissimilar, in the same electrolyte. During galvanic coupling, corrosion of the less corrosion-resistant metal increases and the surface becomes anodic, while corrosion of the more corrosion-resistant metal decreases and the surface becomes cathodic. The driving force for the corrosion or current flow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with the abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in soils along a buried pipeline Factor Range Correlation coefficient Number of acid-producing bacteria (a) , cells/g soil 10 3 –10 8 +0.829 Total organic carbon in groundwater, % 0.05–1.2 +0.645 Soil resistivity, Ω · cm 500–30,000 −0.642...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to identify the material and to compare it with the specification requirements on the drawing. Otherwise, the alloy is identified using available standards. For metallic components, destructive analysis is performed using inductively coupled plasma/atomic or optical emission spectroscopy, an analytical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... Vibration on a High Pressure Core Injection Pump at a Nuclear Plant Case #2: Boiler Feed Pump Alignment Change Causing Pump Failure and Turbine Pedestal Cracking Case #3: Cavitation Destroying Impellers on Large Circulating Water Pumps Case #4: Low Pump Flow Destroying Antifriction Bearings...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Some of these problems are drilling of and installation damage to the composite, delamination of the composite material around the hole and pullout of the fastener under load, differences in expansion coefficients of the composite and the fastener, galvanic corrosion between the composite hole wall...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... theories. Electrochemical Theory According to the electrochemical theory, galvanic cells are set up between regions of exposed metal surfaces (e.g., metal grains and heterogeneous phases), and anodic paths are thus established. For example, the precipitation of CuAl 2 from an Al-4Cu alloy along...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... they determine whether the material is stressed above or below any ductile-to-brittle transition temperature below which relatively low energy fractures can occur. Other degradation mechanisms, such as corrosion and scaling; stress corrosion; erosion from flowing gases, liquids, and solids; hydrogen damage...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and the heating of steam in a superheater or reheater. The heat-flow path through a clean boiler tube has three components. First, fire-side heat transfer from the flame or hot flue gases is by both radiation and convection. Radiation predominates in the furnace, where the gas temperatures may be close to 1650 °C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... This may be due to the larger size of the interstitial site in the center of the unit cell. Another factor in the resistance of austenitic stainless steels to hydrogen damage may be the low hydrogen diffusivities in these steels. Hydrogen diffusivity in austenite is several orders of magnitude lower than...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... (a) Schematic of the third-body theory. (b) Graph of debris flow concept as a function of debris layer thickness. Adapted from Ref 62 Fig. 18 Illustration of the contact oxygenation concept to formalize the transition from pure abrasive to composite abrasive-adhesive fretting scar interface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (480 °F), resulting in the formation of tantalum hydride. Hydrogen absorption also can occur if tantalum is coupled to a more active metal in a galvanic cell, particularly in hydrochloric acid. As little as 100 ppm of hydrogen in tantalum cause severe embrittlement by hydride formation. Zirconium...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... • Multiple intergranular fissures covered with reaction scale• Grain faces may show porosity Metallographic inspection, 50–1000× (cross section) • Grain distortion and flow near fracture• Irregular, transgranular fracture • Little distortion evident• Intergranular or transgranular• May relate to notches...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Nominal composition of alloys tested in molten chloride at 700 °C (1290 °F) in a flowing argon atmosphere Table 4 Nominal composition of alloys tested in molten chloride at 700 °C (1290 °F) in a flowing argon atmosphere Alloy Composition, wt% Fe Cr Ni Mn Al Mo Si Ti...