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galvanic cell

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0006900
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... on the conditions (the clamp is the cathode of a galvanic cell with zinc) and the brittle nature of the cracks, the failures were diagnosed as hydrogen-stress cracking. Laboratory experiments were conducted to substantiate the above diagnosis and to evaluate the effect of annealing and the hydrogen-stress cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... of graphite in grease (Lox-Safe) was applied at the stainless-aluminum interface, there were no failures after 1,000-hr exposure — again consistent with the observations made at Cape Kennedy. The grease was an insulator between the dissimilar metal couples, and it eliminated the galvanic cell reaction. Even...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... of the SO 2 in the flue gas. The carbonaceous deposit will absorb some of the flue gas and release sulphurous and sulphuric acids onto the metal surface when moisture condensation occurs. The attack will be further accentuated by the carbon acting as a cathode in a galvanic cell with the metal surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001701
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... was also observed in some of the specimens. In this particular case the connection between the iron pipe and brass fitting in one of the samples evaluated, had resulted in a galvanic cell and corrosion of the steel was evident in the area. The cause of corrosion inside the steel pipes was attributed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001320
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... acidity. Acidic conditions can occur underneath built-up internal deposits and attack the tube metal. The copper in the internal deposits may have acted as a secondary factor by accelerating the pitting corrosion (by setting up localized galvanic cells). Conclusion and Recommendations Most Probable...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... determine what inspection and maintenance action, if any, should be taken. All corrosion reactions are electrochemical in nature and depend on the operation of electrochemical cells at the metal surface. This mechanism is discussed in the first section, “Galvanic Corrosion.” Galvanic corrosion applies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... what inspection and maintenance action, if any, should be taken. All corrosion reactions are electrochemical in nature and depend on the operation of electrochemical cells at the metal surface. This mechanism is discussed in the first section, “Galvanic Corrosion,” in this article. Galvanic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of deep pits or a large number of shallow pits. In the present case, the large number of pits combined with the depth of the pits is remarkable. In some circumstances, pitting can be encouraged by galvanic cells. In the present instance, however, where the copper tubing is connected to iron headers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... on the carburized fastener creates a source of hydrogen when the fastener is exposed to corrosive conditions. Zinc will act as a sacrificial anode during corrosion, with the result that hydrogen atoms will be liberated at the cathodic region in a galvanic cell between zinc and iron. The presence of a crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and/or growth can initiate corrosion. Additionally, the biofilm can cultivate an electrochemical corrosion cell that can lead to localized or general corrosion. The material under the biofilm or deposit is generally the anode while the surrounding area is the cathode. Furthermore, if chloride ions are present...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of Mines , https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/mining/content/history.html 2. NRS Galvanized Brake Pads , Toronto , Canada , https://nrsbrakes.com/galvanized-steel-brake-pads/ 3. Rigney D.A. , Sliding Wear of Metals , Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. , Vol 18 , 1988 , p 141 – 163 10.1146/annurev.ms...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... 53 – 71 31. Jang J.W. , Iwasaki I. , and Moore J.J. , The Effect of Galvanic Interaction Between Martensite and Ferrite in Grinding Media Wear , Corrosion , Vol 45 ( No. 5 ), 1989 , p 402 – 407 32. Isaacson A.E. , McDonough P.J. , and Maysilles J.H...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... 4 Schematic diagram of the mechanism in an FeS corrosion cell created by the action of SRB. Iron sulfide sets up a galvanic couple with steel, sustained and extended by the further action of SRB. The bacteria use electrons from the corrosion process, possibly in the form of cathodic hydrogen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... on the metallic surface. The uncovered metal will act as a soluble macro-anode compared to the surrounding large zone covered by the oxide passive film (cathodic area) in the same way as it happens, at micro-level, between the grain boundaries and the grain. The macro-galvanic actions, due to the oxygen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... as the protective oxide on the aluminum remains intact. As a general rule, the protective oxide film is very stable in aqueous solutions in the pH range of 4.0 to 8.5. Galvanic corrosion occurs throughout most fuel storage basins. It occurs when a metal or alloy is electrically coupled to another metal, usually...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... it would be expected that chromium and manganese would also be present if crevice or galvanic action was solely responsible for the corrosion. This fact, coupled with the reddish-brown slime deposit in the pit, points to the presence of an iron-type ion-concentrating bacteria. Corrosion due to this type...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... discussion during recent years, and it has been a point of contention whether or not the elemental copper seen in the boiler deposits has promoted the corrosion by forming a galvanic cell with the iron as anode or is the result of corrosion, being formed by reduction of copper salts by the resulting hydrogen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... This may be due to the larger size of the interstitial site in the center of the unit cell. Another factor in the resistance of austenitic stainless steels to hydrogen damage may be the low hydrogen diffusivities in these steels. Hydrogen diffusivity in austenite is several orders of magnitude lower than...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with the abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in soils along a buried pipeline Factor Range Correlation coefficient Number of acid-producing bacteria (a) , cells/g soil 10 3 –10 8 +0.829 Total organic carbon in groundwater, % 0.05–1.2 +0.645 Soil resistivity, Ω · cm 500–30,000 −0.642...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: change in the environment; change in the alloy or heat treatment; change in design; use of galvanic protection; use of inhibitors; use of nonmetallic coatings and liners; application of metallic coatings; use of surface treatments, thermal spray, or other surface modifications; corrosion monitoring...