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gage repeatability

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... normally or nearly so to the main hoop stress direction. Residual-stress measurements were made using a hole-drilling technique and strain gage rosettes. Large tensile axial residual stresses were measured at nearly every location investigated with a large residual hoop stress was found for locations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... Abstract Chain link, a part of a mechanism for transferring hot or cold steel blooms into and out of a reheating furnace, broke after approximately four months of service. The link was cast from 2% Cr austenitic manganese steel and was subjected to repeated heating to temperatures of 455 to 595...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... was visibly corroded. The wire was then incrementally loaded in tension. The stress was measured using XRD techniques, and the applied stress was monitored via the strain gage. The slope of the XRD stress versus applied stress was 0.889. The same steel wire was electropolished, and the experiment was repeated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... techniques, and the applied stress was monitored via the strain gage. The slope of the XRD stress versus applied stress was 0.889. The same steel wire was electropolished, and the experiment was repeated. The slope of the XRD stress versus applied stress was 0.997. The results plotted in Fig. 9...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001576
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
.... It is extrapolated that 10 4 to 10 5 cycles of stress were applied until the cracks travelled through the blade. Dividing the repeated cycles by rotation frequency of the motor gives about one hour. Judging from the actual operating hours of the fan, one hour is too short to account for this. It is, therefore...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001659
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... as a perturbation from the shell crack under cyclic loading and is constrained to develop as an embedded flaw in the early stages of growth because the crack is impeded at the gage side and surface of the rail head by compressive longitudinal stresses. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis Rails (railroad) Shell...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001732
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... in designing the test fixture was to determine lock loads from actual vehicle tests. To accomplish this, a striker equipped with strain gages was mounted to the door pillar of a vehicle and set to provide a 50-lb sealing force on the door. The door was then opened and slammed shut, and readings indicating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-hardening strength increase. Referencing the dog bone shapes in Fig. 1 , the tensile coupon has a rectangular cross section in the gage region at the beginning of the test. During the tensile test, the volume of metal in the gage region is constant but is redistributed, with an increase in length...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... on initial sheet thickness: Film/foil: extruded sheet thickness <0.25 mm (0.01 in.) Thin gage: extruded sheet thickness <1.5 mm (0.06 in.) Heavy gage: extruded sheet thickness >3 mm (0.12 in.) Plate: extruded sheet thickness >12.5 mm (0.5 in.) Sheets with a thickness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001724
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... that many of the test pieces — in fact all of the specimens from end bell No. 1-E — broke outside the middle half of the gage length. In the discussion of this paper in London, V. J. Vickers of the English Electric Co., Ltd., said that a precisely similar failure occurred in 1950 in a test pit when...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001591
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... messages were received repeating the warning of ice ahead in the western North Atlantic. Twice Captain Edward Smith of the RMS Titanic ordered the ship to a more southerly course but he failed to reduce the speed. After the sinking of the RMS Titanic, it was determined on the basis of several reports...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... was operated. Torsional testing generally is performed using either one of two methods. The first is the use of a strain gage to measure the alternating torsional strain. The second method involves measuring the change in the passing frequency of equally spaced gear teeth or equally spaced reference marks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006942
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Fracture due to repeated application of tensile, flexural, or shear stress, such as opening and closing of a hinged part, or repeated impact leading to crack formation and growth Low adhesive bond strength for applications requiring high bond strength Thermally bonded heat seals Seals made...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is low. For example, oxygen may penetrate along boundaries (grains, twins, subgrains) and cause a general weakening. As the temperature is lowered, the strain (and stress) increases and the weakened boundary cracks some distance into the metal. This process is repeated until final failure. The effect...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and lid; that is, the lid was not fully seated into the container ( Fig. 4 ). This 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) gap was repeated for several welds made on outer containers that had either CS/Al or SS inner containers. The large major-ity of these welds contained porosity, regardless of the inner container type...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... variations in the manganese, phosphorus, sulfur, and silicon requirements. The compositions are basically 4340 steel. All three forgings were heat treated to a tensile strength of approximately 270,000 psi, with a yield strength of about 235,000 psi, and gave elongations of about 10% in a gage length...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Polyimide (PI) 310–365 590–689 … … 72–118 10.4–17.1 (a) When vulcanized. (b) T d , deformation temperature. Source: Ref 2 – 7 Fig. 1 Structures of selected commodity and engineering plastics. Polymer chains are made up of the repeat units shown, joined end to end. Source: Ref...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... failures. Stress coating can be used effectively for locating small areas of high strains, determining the directions of the principal strains, and measuring the approximate magnitude of tensile and compressive strains. Gages can then be placed at the high-strain areas and in the principal-strain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and ISO 527-2 provide similar results, they are not considered technically equivalent due to differences in specimen size and test requirements. ISO 527-2 is a more prescriptive standard and thus provides more repeatable results. ASTM D638 includes a procedure for toe compensation, but ISO 527 does...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... components of the board materials and packages. Because of these thermal stresses, repeated operation and changes in the service temperature can eventually result in component failure due to fatigue. Fatigue failure poses the most important reliability concerns for prolonged performance of solder joints...