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fusion welding

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047710
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... cosmetic weld pass on top of the initial full-penetration weld. There were no other known service failures of gears were welded by this method. One zone of the welded joint showed incomplete fusion, surrounded by two zones containing fatigue beach marks This indicated that the incomplete-fusion zone was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract An aircraft fuel-nozzle-support assembly exhibited cracks along the periphery of a fusion weld that attached a support arm to a fairing in a joint that approximated a T-shape in cross section. The base metal was type 321 stainless steel. Examination showed a good-quality weld...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... to one side of the spot weld, suggesting improper electrode contact. Visual examination of the weld fractures showed that the weld nuggets varied considerably in size, some being very small and three exhibiting an HAZ but no weld. Of 28 welds, only nine had acceptable nugget diameters and fusion-zone...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... main crack had propagated parallel to the fusion boundary along the subcritical HAZ and was associated with long stringers of type II manganese sulfide (MnS) inclusions. This supported the conclusion that the weld failed by lamellar tearing as a result of the high rotational strain induced at the root...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... band suggested that the weld had been made by the oxy-gas process. A lack of root fusion over most of its length was evident. Examination of the fracture faces, which were of crystalline appearance indicative of brittle behavior, indicated incomplete fusion of the weld root. Microscopic examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
.... Crankshafts Fillet welds Stress relieving Welded steel Joining-related failures Fatigue fracture The following case illustrates very effectively the danger of attempting to reclaim highly stressed parts by the application of fusion welding. It concerns two Diesel engine crankshafts of similar...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... weld quality and must be carefully controlled to prevent porosity, cracks, fissures, undercuts, incomplete fusion, and other weld imperfections. The sources of weld imperfections (or defects) are also discussed in this article, as they relate to service failures or rejection during inspection. This...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001430
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... cracks, lack of fusion, gross slag inclusions or porosity is covered up and only detectable by NDT techniques. Earlier volumes of these reports have included many instances of failure of shafts and other components following the use of welding to restore worn regions, effect modifications or correct...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089738
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... fracture, there was a gap between the two sheets of stainless steel, and the third weld was separate (weld 3). Examination of the underside of the joint showed incomplete fusion of the weld between the tube and duct. Distortion of the base metal adjacent to the weld was also visible from this side...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... for the exterior surface of the weld. A segmented backup ring with a gas channel was used inside the vessel to shield the weld root. The pressure vessel failed due to contamination of the fusion zone by oxygen, which resulted when the gas shielding the root face of the weld was diluted by air that...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047879
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... heat-affected zone of the forged steel shaft. Microscopic investigation and chemical analysis of the steel shaft revealed presence of martensite (offered a path of easy crack propagation) around the fusion line and dilution of the weld metal by the carbon steel shaft. The microstructure was found to be...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... occurred at welds and consisted of large subsurface void formations with pinhole penetrations of the surfaces. Corrosive attack initiated in the heat affected zones of the welds, usually immediately adjacent to fusion lines. Stepwise grinding, polishing, and etching through the affected areas revealed that...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Abstract The genesis of failure of 6.1 mm thick electric resistance welded API 5L X-46 pipes during pretesting at a pressure equivalent to 90% of specified minimum yield strength was investigated. Cracks were found to initiate on the outer surface of the pipes in the fusion zone and propagate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0047537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... standard vertical down stove pipe-welding procedures with E7010 cellulosic electrodes. The crack started partially as a result of incomplete fusion on the pipe side wall, which in turn was a result of misalignment of the two pipes. The crack was typical of hydrogen cracking. Girth welds can be made using...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001612
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... premature failure of the fan was due to inadequate bonding between the sheets at the weld nugget. The fracture was initiated from the nugget-plate interface. The inadequate penetration and lack of fusion between the steel sheets during resistance spot welding led to poor weld strength and the fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... through the fillet welds and zone showed lamellar tearing, which confirmed that failure had occurred in weld metal adjacent to the fusion face of the fillet to the vane. Results of the investigation indicated that the primary cause of failure of the impeller was the development of fatigue cracks from the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001426
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... apparently sound link, the prepared surfaces lying in the planes of the links. This examination revealed that the welds were initially defective. Discontinuities were present in both cases adjacent to the insides of the links, of a type indicative of either inadequate fusion or incomplete expulsion of oxide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047558
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... displays a lack of fusion at the bottom corner. Fatigue fracture of the shaft resulted from stresses that were created by vibration acting on a crack or cracks formed in the weld deposit because of the lack of preheating and postheating. Rebuilding of exciter shafts should be discontinued, and the support...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... failure was due to fatigue. Macro-etched cross sections showed a lack of penetration and fusion in the weld. Fatigue cracks developed and slowly progressed through the weld metal. Fracture occurred when the remaining area of sound metal was insufficient to support the load. Lack of penetration of this...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the bellows. The weld failure was attributed to poor quality assurance during fabrication, which resulted in cracklike openings at the fusion zone. The openings extended during tensile loading. Use of proper welding procedures and quality control measures were recommended to prevent future failures...