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fused salt corrosion

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A fused-salt electrolytic-cell pot containing a molten eutectic mixture of sodium, potassium, and lithium chlorides and operating at melt temperatures from 500 to 650 deg C (930 to 1200 deg F) exhibited excessive corrosion after two months of service. The pot was a welded cylinder...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...: modification of the processing parameters to reduce the salt deposition and / or change of bar materials to a more resistant alloy. Castings Fluxing Fused salts Hot gas corrosion Ironmaking Pelleting Sintering furnaces HH UNS J93503 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Comparative information is presented in Table 2 on the corrosion resistance to fused salts, alkalis, and low-temperature oxides for two different classes of structural ceramics, oxides and nonoxides. The data in Table 2 show that both dense oxides and nonoxides are susceptible to attack at low...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and metal dusting, sulfidation, hot corrosion, chloridation, hydrogen interactions, molten metals, molten salts, and aging reactions including sensitization, stress-corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue. It concludes with a discussion on various protective coatings, such as aluminide coatings, overlay...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... barrier coating (TBC) is applied. Metals and alloys are known to experience accelerated oxidation when their surfaces are covered with a thin film of fused salt in an oxidizing gas atmosphere at elevated temperatures. This is known as high temperature or “hot” corrosion where a porous non-protective...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., the hoop stress imposed by the water pressure is increased, and a ductile tensile failure results. The critical factors contributing to the caustic corrosion are the availability of sodium hydroxide or alkaline-producing salts and their mechanism of concentration. Sodium hydroxide is often intentionally...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article commences with a discussion on the characteristics of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) and describes crack initiation and propagation during SCC. It reviews the various mechanisms of SCC and addresses electrochemical and stress-sorption theories. The article explains...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to a concentration of boiler salts, in particular, sodium hydroxide. This had dissolved the normally protective magnetite scale leading to local corrosion and ultimately to the formation of pits and channels on the bore of the tube, a phenomenon to which the term “caustic grooving” has been applied. An alternative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) is a form of corrosion and produces wastage in that the stress-corrosion cracks penetrate the cross-sectional thickness of a component over time and deteriorate its mechanical strength. Although there are factors common among the different forms...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... within the tube) and then fractured, which allowed molten salt to flow into the tube. Chemical processing industry Chemical reactors Fused salts, environment Overheating Tubing St 35.8 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Selected Reference • Pond R.B. Jr...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that heat from the separator would not cause steam flashing inside the exchanger. Finally, it is not considered good practice to use austenitic stainless steels in hot-water service under conditions of alternate wetting and drying; the drying favors the accumulation of corrosive salt deposits...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... be removed from zirconium and its alloys by vacuum annealing. Uranium, uranium alloys, and thorium are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Hydrides in thorium have been identified as ThH 2 and Th 4 H 15 . The hydride in uranium is UH 3 . Uranium absorbs hydrogen from three sources: fused salt bath...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... zirconium and its alloys by vacuum annealing. Uranium, uranium alloys, and thorium are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Hydrides in thorium have been identified as ThH 2 and Th 4 H 15 . The hydride in uranium is UH 3 . Uranium absorbs hydrogen from three sources: fused salt bath annealing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the size and location of samples. Mechanical methods of sample removal, such as cutting with a tube cutter, sawing, or drilling, are less likely to alter either the microstructure or the characteristics of steam-side or fire-side scale, deposits, or corrosion products than is flame cutting. Mechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... iron, gray cast iron, malleable irons, ductile iron, low-alloy steel castings, austenitic steels, corrosion-resistant castings, and cast aluminum alloys are the materials discussed. The article describes the general types of discontinuities or imperfections for traditional casting with sand molds...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with brittle fracture), and fatigue (striations and tire tracks). The fracture mechanism of intergranular fracture is grain-boundary separation. The causes may be the presence of grain-boundary phases, alloy-depleted boundaries, and environmental or mechanical factors such as stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... FAILURES may be divided into two classes: those rejected after inspection and mechanical testing, and failures in service that may arise from fracture, wear, corrosion, or deformation (distortion). Causes for rejection during inspection may be either features visible on the weldment surface or subsurface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... by acting as mechanical fuses. Stress directors in helicopter gearing are also designed so that if gear tooth fracture occurs, only half the tooth breaks off. This leaves the other half of the gear tooth to carry the load, simultaneously creating sufficient vibration to warn the pilot of imminent failure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be remembered that some parts are designed to fracture under certain circumstances. Not doing so may constitute the failure. Shear pins, for example, are commonly used to protect valuable equipment by acting as mechanical fuses. Stress directors in helicopter gearing are also designed so that if gear tooth...