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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0047813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of the shaft. Faint lines parallel to the visible crack thought to be fatigue cracks were revealed on examination of the machined surface. The shaft was repaired by welding a new section and machined to required diameters and tapers to avoid abrupt changes. Eccentricity Friction welding 6150 UNS...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0047817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... was changed to a one-piece forging and circulation of atmosphere during heat treatment was permitted through a hole drilled in the flange end of the rod to avoid decarburization. Friction Welding Holes Roughness Stress concentration 8620 UNS G86200 Fatigue fracture Heat treating-related failures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... pulverizers Shafts (power) Torsional fatigue 6150 UNS G61500 Fatigue fracture A unique failure developed in the central shaft of a coal pulverizer at our plant. A crack appeared in the shaft at one place and then welded by friction around the circumference while the pulverizer continued to operate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., as well as how their alignment may be affected by deflections or distortions that can occur as a result of mechanical loads, shock, vibrations, or thermal gradients, should be considered. The method of connecting the driving or driven member to the shaft, such as press fitting, welding, or use...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... electron beam welds electroslag welds fatigue fitness-for-service assessment flash welds friction welding high-frequency induction welds inclusions joint design laser beam welds mechanical testing porosity upset butt welds weld discontinuity weldment failure weldment integrity WELDMENT...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... energy are more prone to severe adhesive wear failures (i.e., galling) than those with a high stacking-fault energy. Adhesive transfer in metals was also found to be related to the ability of metals to solid-state weld under the action of rubbing, with self-mated metals being more prone to friction weld...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with obtaining specifications and drawings and should encompass all the design aspects of the failed part as well as all manufacturing and fabrication details—machining, welding, heat treating, coating, quality-control records, and pertinent purchase specifications. Additional information on upfront planning...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides a background of friction-bearing failures due to overheating. The failures of locomotive axles caused by overheated traction-motor support bearings are discussed. The article also describes liquid-metal embrittlement (LME) in steel. It examines the results...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of extremely hard steel that is foreign to the pipe wall. The hardness is 870 HK and probably came from the hard surfacing materials used for construction equipment bucket and blade edges. This apparently became friction welded to the gouged surface during the damage process. Failure of mechanically...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Both forms of liquid-impact erosion are discussed in detail in Friction, Lubrication, and Wear Technology , Volume 18 of ASM Handbook ( Ref 1 , 2 ). Most of what is presented in those articles is not repeated here; instead, emphasis in this article is on manifestations of damage and on ways...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... resistant as well as refractory. For unknown reasons the rotating shaft came into direct contact with the flange. Mechanical friction caused a rise in temperature on both contact surfaces. This mutual contact lasted long enough for the temperature in the contact zone to exceed 1200 deg C, at which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... reasons of a given wear failure and thus adopting the most suitable countermeasures. It is also fundamental in basic research to help focus toward the goals, such as the reduction of wear rate or the optimization of friction. Table 2 Wear processes and mechanisms Wear process Main wear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001847
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... underneath. This led to further wear and an increase in friction between the sleeve and bearing bush. Fatigue crack initiation occurred at the root fillet because of stress concentration and large frictional forces. Insufficient nitriding depth facilitated the propagation of fatigue cracks. bearing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... by the resulting friction that was generated. The loss of shrapnel-type bits of steel from the lip of the fitting occurred as the head was ejected. Fig. 4 Magnified angular view at opened end of steel fitting shown in Fig. 2 . Note torn metal, bum marks, and incipient melting at base. Hexagonal rim did...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... carefully sort out all of the important material aspects of the failure but may examine the mechanical aspects only superficially. Similar imbalances in approach may occur when operating personnel, welding engineers, or corrosion engineers conduct the examination. Few engineers are knowledgeable in all...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... R.J. , Ed., ASM International , 2002 , p 1002 – 1012 . 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569 • Kazama T. , Friction, Lubrication, and Wear of Pump and Compressor Components , Friction, Lubrication, and Wear Technology , Vol 18 , ASM Handbook , Totten G.E. , Ed., ASM International...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... The vessel had a type 304 stainless steel shroud around the catalyst bed as protection against the overheating that was possible if the gas bypassed the bed through the refractory material. The failure was observed to have begun at the toe of the shroud-support ring weld. The ring was found to have a number...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and the onset of impact fretting. In some turbines, a wire is threaded through holes in the outer ends of the blades to dampen down vibration. In this case, the frictional energy dissipated in the fretting process is the effective agent and may be considered one of the few cases where fretting is beneficial...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... bearings are designed on the principle of rolling contact rather than sliding contact; frictional effects, although low, are not negligible, and lubrication is essential. The article lists the typical characteristics and causes of several types of failures. It describes failure by wear, failure by fretting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... are included to illustrate these applications. Thermal response ASTM A232 UNS K15047 ASTM A572 grade 50 UNS K02303 1045 UNS G10450 ASTM A36 UNS K02599 Brittle fracture Joining-related failures Selected References • Failures Related to Welding...