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friction force measurements

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... In these tribometers, and the surfaces of the of polymers and counter-surfaces, there can be misalignment. Depending on the distance of sliding, this misalignment can be large enough to affect the measured friction forces and friction coefficient. In unidirectional sliding, this misalignment can be observed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... against each other at a constant speed, with the normal force gradually increasing during sliding. Twist Compression Test The twist compression test ( Fig. 15 ) uses the frictional force or coefficient of friction as the measured parameter that indicates adhesive failure or galling. As mentioned...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001847
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... underneath. This led to further wear and an increase in friction between the sleeve and bearing bush. Fatigue crack initiation occurred at the root fillet because of stress concentration and large frictional forces. Insufficient nitriding depth facilitated the propagation of fatigue cracks. bearing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., the theoretical transition is directly proportional to the coefficient of friction, proportional to the normal force to the power 2/3, and inversely proportional to the sphere radius to the power 1/3 ( Ref 41 ). The measured displacement amplitude is therefore given by: (Eq 17) δ m ,   t...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of friction coefficient on these shear stresses. Stress Distribution of Two Cylinders under Roll/Slide Contact According to Hertz theory, the complicated problem when two cylindrical bodies with their axes both lying parallel to the z -axis are pressed to come into contact by a force P per unit...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0047813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... lines parallel to the visible crack thought to be fatigue cracks were revealed on examination of the machined surface. The shaft was repaired by welding a new section and machined to required diameters and tapers to avoid abrupt changes. Eccentricity Friction welding 6150 UNS G61500 Fatigue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of the strip conductor due to centrifugal force. This leads to a high frictional binding force between turns and prevents axial expansion under normal heating in service. Rotor trouble which proved to be due to copper shortening was found in a set rated at 27.5 MW. It was manufactured in 1934 at which time...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Vacuum An investigation on the effect of reduced air pressure on the fretting of a carbon steel cylinder on a flat showed that in a vacuum of 1 mPa (1.5 × 10 −7 psi), the coefficient of friction was high at 3.0, and, although little measurable wear took place, considerable surface damage occurred...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001649
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... was ductile overload and that the mechanical properties of the bolts were consistent with exemplar bolts that had been supplied. After eliminating other sources of excessive load application, the most probable cause of failure was ascribed to variances between the frictional characteristics of the bolt...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... 17200. Microstructural examination showed the shaft had ran hot, and there were no material defects. The shaft probably was overstressed by torsion forces. The presence of surface checks on both sides of the cam lobe that were filled with bearing metal proved that overstressing occurred through galling...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... The pre-existing crack morphology was intergranular fracture in the axles studied. An estimate of the force required to cause the axle fracture can be made using the measured crack size, fracture toughness determined from these tests, and linear elastic fracture mechanics. The axle can be reliably said...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ]. Figure 1 shows this model. Fig. 1 Dynamic model of the cam–follower system Eight translational degrees of freedom ( y i ( i = 1,…,5) x j ( j = 1,2)) and one rotational degree of freedom ( θ c ) are considered. Several dynamic parameters are considered in this model: Friction...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by a cutting tool. In gouging abrasion, the wearing surface is plastically deformed and work hardened by the abrasive forces, so that cutting and tearing of metal occurs on the work-hardened surface. Typical operations that involve gouging abrasion include crushing and primary grinding operations. The wear...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... In gouging abrasion, the wearing surface is plastically deformed and work hardened by the abrasive forces, so that cutting and tearing of metal occurs on the work-hardened surface. Typical operations that involve gouging abrasion include crushing and primary grinding operations. The wear liners of crushing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... Non-metallic inclusions in the blade material playing a minor part. Cracking (fracturing) Loads (forces) Nonmetallic inclusions Stresses Turbine blades Vibration Ferritic stainless steel (Other, general, or unspecified) fracture The failure described occurred in a 45,000 kW, 3,000...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of manufacturing uncertainties (varying bearing clearances, circularity and cylindricity). This results in a reduction of manufacturing and measurement costs. Fig. 6 The friction of sliding bearing pairs for different lubricants. EP, extreme pressure Debris and Contaminant Particles All lubricants...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Wire ropes’ failures due to friction, martensite or bainite, have also been reported [ 2 , 6 ]. These hard zones or spots, formed on wire surface as a thin layer, are due to the condition of the frictional heat between wires and sheave. The thin martensite layer may crack when the wire is bent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001288
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Stress Analysis Analytical The platen-supporting flange was considered a built-in cantilever beam ( Fig. 4 ). The table weight, residual stresses, and friction forces between the flange and its supporting surface are neglected in the calculation. The reaction force on the bottom of the flange...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... provides information on not only better materials, but also design changes intended to reduce wear and increase service life. bushing wear relative hardness aluminum bronze distortion microstructural analysis coefficient of friction AMPCO 45 (aluminum bronze) UNS 63000 D2 (high carbon, high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Figure 5 shows the measuring data of grain size in depth and surface of the damaged part. It revealed a decrease in grain size along depth to surface. This result verified that the damages came with external forces on surface which caused plastic deformation. So, cavitation might be one of the failure...