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free-surface cracking

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Metallographic examination of the cracked area indicated stress-corrosion cracking, which had originated at rusted areas that had formed on longitudinal scratch marks on the outer surface of the pipe. The material was free from sensitization, and there was no significant amount of cold work. It was recommended...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089734
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of the interior fillet welds on the surfaces of the flanges. Recommendations included using ultrasonic testing to identify the appropriate joints and then replacing them. Special attention to accuracy of fit-up in the replacement joints was also recommended to achieve smooth, notch-free contours on the interior...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... cracking, the rapid failure, and presence of mercury led to the conclusion of stress-corrosion cracking. It was impossible to remove mercury from the system so carbon steel coils were substituted for the brass ones. The carbon steel coils gave failure-free service for over nine years. Corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract Practical examples of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) and methods for its prevention were presented. Cracks in chloride-sensitive austenitic steels were very branched and transcrystalline. Etched cross sections of molybdenum-free samples showed chloride-induced cracks running...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... hydrogen cracks or fatigue cracks. The satisfactory blade from the older delivery also showed these incipient cracks ( Fig. 5 ) as well as some in the tooth base ( Fig. 2 ). All cracks were non-decarburized and were free of chromium deposits. Therefore they could not have existed before heat treatment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0048039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... as the transverse cracking progresses, placing the maximum torsional fiber stress below the surface. Because of the fibrous nature of cold-drawn materials, longitudinal crack propagation would be expected under conditions of cyclic torsional loading with transverse crack propagation. Restriction of free movement...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001559
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the presence of low level surface chlorides. Controls were implemented to insure that temperatures are kept below 150 deg F, or, walls of the pipe are moisture-free or the cumulative wetted period will never exceed 30 h. Chlorides Piping 304 UNS S30400 Stress-corrosion cracking Transgranular...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract A steel valve spring meeting Steel-Iron-Test 1570 fractured during the high-stress condition of the operation of its valve. Metallographic examination of a transverse section adjacent to the fracture and a longitudinal section through the crack showed the steel was free...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... in 1% nital and examining it at a magnification of 260 × disclosed partial decarburization of the surface (Section A-A, right, Fig. 1 ). The microstructure of the metal in this region of the shaft was characteristic of a free-machining medium-carbon steel. Examination (at 65 ×) of an unetched...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
.... Failure of the chain link was attributed to weld defects, which acted as stress raisers from which fatigue cracks originated. Inspection revealed welding laps in all chains in service. All such chains were removed from service and replaced with defect-free chains. The chain manufacturer changed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0047779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... specified for the shafts was a free-machining grade of A6 tool steel. Fig. 1 A6 tool steel tube-bending-machine shaft that failed by fatigue fracture. Section A-A: Original and improved designs for fillet in failure region. Dimensions are in inches. View B: Fracture surface showing regions of fatigue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048134
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... as a result of result in straining at the bend zone. The spring was concluded to have failed in fatigue. It was recommended that the springs should be made of wire free from straightener marks and the bending tool should be redesigned so as not to indent the wire. Bending Indentation Radii C51000...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0047447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... would always be susceptible to SCC. Redesign to lower stresses was essential. In addition, change to a high-strength duplex stainless steel with its higher strength and greater resistance to chlorides was recommended. Finally, the part must be adequately risered to produce solid shanks free from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001382
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... complete fracture. It was recommended that proper lubrication procedures be maintained to allow free rotation of the bolts while in service. Axles Couplings Lubrication Railroads 1045 UNS G10450 Fatigue fracture Background A trunnion bolt that was part of a coupling system in a train...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., internal bursts or chevron cracks, cracks on free surfaces, cracks on die-contacted surfaces Metal-flow-related problems: for example, end grain and poor surface performance; inhomogeneous grain size; shear bands and locally weakened structures; cold shuts, folds, and laps; flow-through defects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... taken on a crack-containing specimen (i.e., at the coil ID in both a crack containing region and in a crack-free region). For comparison purposes, a traverse was also made across the tube wall at the coil OD (surface D in Fig. 5 ). The hardness in the crack-containing region at the coil ID is lower...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... absence of carbides and presence of voids. (b) Same as (a) except solution was high in phosphate and low in caustic. 100× Figure 5a shows complete decomposition of the pearlite and cracking toward the corroding surface in the solution containing a high concentration of free caustic. Figure 5b...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091699
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... cracking, that is, intergranular and free of any localized grain deformation. 75×. Courtesy of J.P. Crosson, Lucius Pitkin, Inc. Metallographic examination revealed that the cracks originated at the outer surface, were intergranular in nature, and were free of any localized grain deformation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... × 150 A transverse section of the zone in which the fracture originated is shown in Figure 7 , and it will be noted that there is present an area comparatively free from carbon, while the termination of a crack or fissure is also present in the top left corner. There was no indication...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001707
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... to high strengths, exhibited many similar features: internal initiation of multiple cracks with random orientations, cleavage like cracking within these zones, and higher total hydrogen levels than the levels measured in crack-free parts. Furthermore both components underwent the same processing by being...