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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... . The assumption of a single or overall activation energy means that the only effect of temperature is to speed up or slow down the reaction. Using Eq 3 , the master curve in Fig. 16 was created by shifting the data of Fig. 14 along the ln(time) axis, using the measured overall activation energy of 63.5 kJ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... concentration should be sufficient to provide an adequate amount of surface free energy ( Ref 49 – 51 ). The local hydrostatic component of the tensile stress (ρ c ), a more important factor than the major principal stress ( Ref 52 ) required to open a microscopic void of radius r in an elastic-plastic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... alloys can be divided into two categories: lead-containing solder and lead-free solder. Lead-containing solders are conventional solder alloys and have good manufacturability and reliability. However, most manufacturers have already altered the soldering process to include lead-free solder due...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... was kept constant at 0.02mm/sec. The specimens were punched until a 10% or greater decrease occurred in the peak load. The area under the load/deflection curve was assessed to estimate the energy which is called the small punch energy which is used to estimate T sp , the small punch transition energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006919
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of the beam from the notch. The Izod geometry, on the other hand, consists of a cantilever beam with the notch located at the root of the beam. In both cases, the force is applied dynamically by a free-falling pendulum of known initial potential energy. The important dimensions of interest for these tests...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... classification of scrap pieces for sorting Elemental analysis of geological materials ( Ref 1 ) In OES analysis, the specimen composition is determined from light emitted from atoms excited to a higher energy state. Free atoms, when placed in an energetic environment, emit light at a series of narrow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-basis spectra are available) can be used for separating chemical states in AES. Additionally, curve fitting can be used to separate chemistries in nondifferentiated spectra ( Ref 6 ). Fig. 3 Auger electron spectroscopy high-energy-resolution spectra of the (a) silicon KLL and (b) nickel LMM peaks...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... modulus or modulus of elasticity; energy E elastic or storage modulus E viscous or loss modulus EAC environmentally assisted cracking EBSP electron backscattered pattern ECT equicohesive temperature EDM electric discharge machining EDS energy dispersive spectroscopy EDX energy-dispersive x-ray (analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... Scanning electron microscopy instruments combined with an energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) attachment (also referred to as EDX) allow the elemental chemical analysis of plastic materials. The EDS analysis with an SEM instrument can produce additional information for the plastic surfaces. The SEM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... ). Cyclic stress-strain curves can be used to model the plastic deformation behavior of the polymer at the stress concentration or notch root. In addition, energy-based fatigue models use cyclic stress-strain curves and properties to calculate the work done under cyclic loading. Strain-versus-cycles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... as a plastic and as a fiber. Fig. 1 Typical stress–strain curve for a fiber, a plastic, and an elastomer Polymers are increasingly used in load-bearing structural applications. This article briefly reviews the mechanical behavior and fracture characteristics that discriminate structural polymers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... situation. In both cases, the effective rigidity of the material decreases with elapsed time ( Ref 3 , 14 , 15 ). Fig. 2 Typical tensile stress-strain curves of a ductile plastic, showing the effect of strain rate and temperature Fig. 3 Effective modulus of a plastic when applied stress...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... plastic deformation at nominal stresses below yield. Initiation frequently occurs near free surfaces, as nominal stresses are often higher there (e.g., bending). Geometric variations at surfaces can locally elevate stresses and strains, and processes of damage accumulation (described below for pure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and to produce a constrained multiaxial state of tension a small distance below the bottom of the notch. The force is applied dynamically by a free-falling pendulum of known initial potential energy. The important dimensions of interest for these tests include the notch angle, the notch depth, the notch tip...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are much weaker than primary bonds, as indicated in Table 1 , which accounts for the low melting temperatures, low stiffness, and low strength exhibited by many thermoplastic polymers. Thermoplastics can be melted by heating and will resolidify when cooled. Bond energies for various materials Table 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of CVN absorbed energy versus test temperature for carbon or alloy steel will generally have a sigmoidal shape exhibiting a lower shelf energy at low temperatures and an upper shelf energy at high temperatures. The curve is also characterized by the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... large axial thermal bending stresses. Thermal cycling of the system initiated fatigue cracks at the stiffener rings. When the critical crack size was reached, fast fracture occurred. The system was redesigned by eliminating the redundant restraints and by modifying the stiffener rings to permit free...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... frequently occurs near free surfaces, because nominal stresses are often higher there (e.g., bending and torsion). Geometric variations at surfaces can locally elevate stresses and strains, and processes of damage accumulation (described subsequently for pure unflawed materials) are also favored at surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: EDS, energy-dispersive spectroscopy; WDS, wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy; AES, Auger electron spectroscopy; XPS, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; TOF-SIMS, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry; FTIR, Fourier transform infrared (spectroscopy) Understanding the various analytical...