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free energy

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 8 Free energy diagram for the formation of sulfides of various metals. Source: Ref 3 More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... be surprised at first to see the reaction going in the other direction. The reason for the reversal is the temperature effect; estimating from the free-energy data selected by Kubaschewski and Evans, the temperature of reversal is about 875° for equilibrium conditions. Below this temperature, the lower...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... by oxidation accelerates rapidly. A free energy diagram such as the one in Fig. 8 (also known as an Ellingham diagram ) can be used to determine whether an environment has a sulfur potential high enough to form sulfides. Reference to Figure 8 shows that the sulfide of chromium is more stable than...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... classification of scrap pieces for sorting Elemental analysis of geological materials ( Ref 1 ) In OES analysis, the specimen composition is determined from light emitted from atoms excited to a higher energy state. Free atoms, when placed in an energetic environment, emit light at a series of narrow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... alloys can be divided into two categories: lead-containing solder and lead-free solder. Lead-containing solders are conventional solder alloys and have good manufacturability and reliability. However, most manufacturers have already altered the soldering process to include lead-free solder due...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... reorganization of polymer chains. For microvoids to nucleate and propagate effectively in an elastic-plastic material, the local stress concentration should be sufficient to provide an adequate amount of surface free energy ( Ref 49 – 51 ). The local hydrostatic component of the tensile stress (ρ c...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to the sample during handling ( Ref 1 ). Even so-called clean-room gloves are not necessarily clean of such contaminants, because they are manufactured more to be particle free than contaminant free. Common surface contaminants on powder-free gloves include silicon, chlorine, sodium, and zinc. Touching the area...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Corros. 59 ( 3 ), 254 – 260 ( 2008 ) 10.1002/maco.200804151 2. Lasky R.C. : Tin pest: a forgotten issue in lead free soldering . In: 2004 SMTA International Conference Proceedings , Chicago, IL , Sept 26–30, 2004 , pp. 838 – 840 3. ROHS Directive—Directive 2002 / 95 / EC...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001076
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... severe at one edge of each pad, resulting in deeper grooving and a buildup of deposits, mostly silver sulfides. Microstructural analysis of a cross section indicated that the interface between the silver overlay and the substrate (beryllium copper) was sound and free of voids and foreign material...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: EDS, energy-dispersive spectroscopy; WDS, wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy; AES, Auger electron spectroscopy; XPS, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; TOF-SIMS, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry; FTIR, Fourier transform infrared (spectroscopy) Understanding the various analytical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001380
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... which assumed a “thumbnail” shape and displayed surface morphologies which resulted from intergranular decohesion. Many of the crack sites initiated from corrosion pits. Energy dispersive spectroscope performed on areas within the crack initiation site showed the presence of chlorides. The failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001490
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Around the perimeter of the hole the steel exhibited a very unusual set of microstructural bands, Figures 5 , 6 , and 7 . Based on the appearance and on energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) microprobe spectra, Figures 8 and 7 , and on the wavelength spectrometer analysis of oxygen, Figure 9...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006920
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of polycarbonates (aliphatic part) Fig. 14 General photochemical degradation mechanism of polyamides Fig. 15 Energy-dissipation photochemical/thermic mechanism shown with a benzotriazole ultraviolet absorber. ESIPT, excited-state intramolecular proton transfer Fig. 16 General energy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001364
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... drop is high, the compressor is built in stages. The deposit samples were analyzed for elemental constituents using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). This analytical technique is used in conjunction with an SEM and can detect the presence of elements of atomic number 9 (the element...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... Intergranular Fracture and “Mud Cracking” of Corrosion Products Scanning Electron Micrograph, 2000× The corrosion products found on the fracture surfaces were analyzed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Prominent chloride peaks were found in the spectra taken from the fracture surfaces but were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... (ID) of the inner ring of the bearing ( Fig. 3b ). Further, the discoloration was not observed on the entire ID surface of the inner ring. A portion of the ID of the inner ring was free from discoloration. This is shown in Fig. 3b . No physical damage was noticed in the cage of the bearing. The cage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...×. Fig. 6 Typical internal surfaces of regions on the ring sections. Nital etch. 61×. (a) Unthinned regions on the ring sections. (b) Thinned regions on the ring sections. Abstract The carbon steel feedwater piping at a waste-to-energy plant was suffering from wall thinning and leaking after...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... 9 Crossover or virtual source diameter ( d 0 ), nm >10 4 >10 3 15–25 3–5 Work function, eV 4.5 2.6/2.4 2.8 4.3 Energy spread, eV 1–3 >1 0.3–1 0.2–0.3 Operating temperature, °C (°F) 2500 (4530) 1600 (2910) 1500 (2730) 25 (77) Typical service lifetime, h 40...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... motion indicates less free-flowing powder. Blade rotation and vertical movement of powders occur simultaneously, and both rotational and vertical resistances can provide different measures of flow energy that quantify the resistance to forced flow. The three categories of powder properties available from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of overheating. Bulk internal deposits were collected from the tubes and analyzed using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and powder x-ray diffraction (XRD). Fig. 4 presents EDS results for the bulk internal deposits from Sample 1. The EDS and XRD analysis results were similar for all four tube...