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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides an overview of fractography and explains how it is used in failure analysis. It reviews the basic types of fracture processes, namely, ductile, brittle, fatigue, and creep, principally in terms of fracture appearances, such as microstructure. The article also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Engineering component and structure failures manifest through many mechanisms but are most often associated with fracture in one or more forms. This article introduces the subject of fractography and aspects of how it is used in failure analysis. The basic types of fracture processes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article briefly reviews the various metallurgical or environmental factors that cause a weakening of the grain boundaries and, in turn, influence the occurrence of intergranular (IG) fractures. It discusses the mechanisms of IG fractures, including the dimpled IG fracture, the IG...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of fracture mechanics. The fracture mechanics approach is an important part of stress analysis at the tips of sharp cracks or discontinuities. The article reviews fracture mechanics concepts, including linear elastic fracture mechanics, elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, and subcritical fracture mechanics...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article reviews the mechanical behavior and fracture characteristics that discriminate structural polymers from metals. It provides information on deformation, fracture, and crack propagation as well as the fractography involving the examination and interpretation of fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract Fractography is the means and methods for characterizing a fractured specimen or component. This includes the examination of fracture-exposed surfaces and the interpretation of the fracture markings as well as the examination and interpretation of crack patterns. This article describes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides a description of the microscale models and mechanisms for deformation and fracture. Macroscale and microscale appearances of ductile and brittle fracture are discussed for various specimen geometries and loading conditions. The article reviews the general...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article commences with a summary of fatigue processes and mechanisms. It focuses on fractography of fatigue. Characteristic fatigue fracture features that can be discerned visually or under low magnification are described. Typical microscopic features observed on structural metals...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0045987
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... brittle transition Front-end loaders Support arms ASTM A572 grade 42 Brittle fracture A support arm on a front-end loader failed in a brittle manner while lifting a load. The arm had a cross section of 50 × 200 mm (2 × 8 in.). Material used for the arm was hot-rolled ASTM A572, grade 42 (type 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047212
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... Abstract A steering knuckle used on an earthmover failed in service. The component fractured into a flange portion and a shaft portion. The flange was 27.9 cm (11 in.) in diam around which there were 12 evenly spaced 16 mm diam bolt holes. The shaft was hollow with a 10.5 cm (4 in.) OD...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0048082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... Abstract The horizontal cross-travel shaft on a derrick failed after two years of service. The shaft was required to be made of 4140 steel quenched to a hardness of 302 to 352 HRB. The shaft was found to have fractured approximately 13 mm from the change in section between the splined end...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0048596
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... the failures occurred were all in the same position relative to the direction of wheel rotation. Visual examination showed the break was a fairly flat transverse fracture in the threaded section between the washer and the nut. The appearance of the fracture surfaces was characteristic of failure by low-cycle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... inspection tests should be performed. Fillet welds Plate metal Stress concentration Welding electrodes Fe-0.25C Joining-related failures Brittle fracture A tooth used on the digging edge of a large dragline bucket ( Fig. 1 ) failed after several weeks in service. The tooth was cast...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... specified for the pipe steel was 0.25C-0.98Mn-3.52Ni-1.34Cr-0.24Mo, which approximates a 9300 steel with high molybdenum. Investigation supported the conclusion that the conveyor pipe failed by brittle fracture, which was attributed to the stresses induced in forcing the circular flange over the elliptical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... from 0.40 to 0.44%. The fracture occurred in the HAZ , where quenching by the surrounding metal had produced a hardness of 55 HRC. Some roadarms of similar carbon content and welded by the same procedure had not failed because they had been tempered during a hot-straightening operation. Brittle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... Abstract A crane hook was stamped S.W.L. 3 tons and, while its main dimensions were in approximate accordance with those specified in B.S. 482 for a hook of this capacity, its shape in some respects was not exactly in conformity with that recommended. At the time of fracture, the load being...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... Abstract An anchorage plate which fractured was one of a pair used as intermediate members through which the boom suspension ropes were attached to the jury-mast of an excavator. Failure of the plate released the ropes on one side of the boom, resulting in extensive damage to the latter...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047710
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... was the site at which primary fracture originated. The possible causes of incomplete-fusion include localized magnetic deflection of the electron beam, a momentary arc-out of the electron beam, and eccentricity in the small weld diam. The failure was attributed to fatigue originating at the local unfused...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047975
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... by contact fatigue mechanism (flaking) activated by the subsurface nonmetallic inclusions. Aircraft components Bearing races Flaking Transmissions (sutomotive) Bearing steel Fatigue fracture Rolling-contact wear The pilot of an aircraft reported illumination of the transmission oil-pressure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0046195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract A pilot-valve bushing fractured after only a few hours of service. In operation, the bushing was subjected to torsional stresses with possible slight bending stresses. A slight misalignment occurred in the assembly before fracture. The bushing was made of 8617 steel and was case...