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four-point bending test

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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 5 Results obtained from a steel four-point bend specimen in round robin tests. The XEC ( 1 2 S 2 ) was determined to be 3.687 10 −5 ksi −1 More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 5 Results obtained from a steel four-point bend specimen in round-robin tests. The x-ray elastic constant (½ S 2 ) was determined to be 3.687 10 −5 ksi −1 . More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Upon arrival at the erection site, an AISI type 316L stainless steel tank intended for storage of fast breeder test reactor coolant (liquid sodium) exhibited cracks on its shell at two of four shell/nozzle fillet-welded joint regions. The tank had been transported from the manufacturer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001496
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... and 3 . Fig. 2 Fracture “B” in the gear shown in Fig. 1 . This fracture is an exact duplicate of fracture “A.” See also Fig. 3 . Fig. 3 Of the 15 teeth that failed by tooth bending fatigue, two fractures intersected a bolt hole (see Fig. 1 and 2 ). Four other fractures touched...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... approximately twice the specified design pressure and two-thirds the approximate yield point of the parent metal. No failures or leakage were observed during proof testing. Metallurgical examination corroborated visual checks, indicating a distinct lack of root penetration in the split areas. Splitting occurred...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... report [ 1 ]. Four axles were broken: two semi-float axles and two stub axles. Three of these axles contained pre-existing cracks and broke at relatively low loads compared to the expected failure loads. Both linear and point crack origins were observed. This article provides the results with data from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Cause The stamping of the four X's into the surface of the nipple must be considered the precipitating cause of the failure. These stampings further cold worked the already highly worked material to the point that cracks formed under the stamping. These initial cracks represented a severe stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001842
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... steel heat affected zone metallurgical notch ring test cyclic bending stress fatigue limit ASTM A106 (seamless carbon steel pipe) UNS K02501 Introduction The fractured part of concern is a long, slender roll that was located in the dryer section of a paper manufacturing machine. Paper...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... deflection of the tray handles that had occurred in the failed tray. Full distortion of the handles was obtained experimentally only by dropping a full hot tray on its end onto the floor. The test results indicated that the tray had slipped from the hand of the user. Bending Deflection Food packaging...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047192
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... flat fracture surfaces with no apparent yielding, but the two large segments did show evidence of bending (yielding) near the fractures. In addition, some segments contained fine radial cracks. Analysis (visual inspection, optical microscopy on polished-and-etched specimens, hardness testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of 400 MPa (29 tonf/in. 2 ) may be calculated. This is comparable to the values measured in the tensile tests. The rougher surface of area 4 presumably reflects the influence of the increasing tensile and bending stresses accelerating the fatigue failure. Areas 1 and 2 are located around...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., the aluminum addition was reduced by one-half. Since then, there have been no additional rejects due to insufficient tensile and bend values. Castings Cracking (fracturing) Flanges Nonmetallic inclusions Tension tests Fe-0.22C GS C 25 (Other, general, or unspecified) fracture In a steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... with that illustrated in Figure 6 . Fig. 7 Structure along flank of fissure. (×100). The results from a sub-standard tensile test piece, cut tangentially from the intrados of the hook above the plane of fracture, were as follows: The ductility of the material was demonstrated by the fact that a bend...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... properties of plastics in torsion D5379 … Standard test method for shear properties of composite materials by the V-notched beam method D6272 Similar to ISO 14125 Flexural properties of unreinforced and reinforced plastics and electrical insulating materials by four-point bending Source: Ref...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... in the wire.[ 7 ] To determine if wear affects fatigue, a failure of a mine hoisting rope was examined in three areas: 1) Correlation of individual wire fatigue failures with point contact between strands, 2) fractography of selected wire failures, and 3) micro-hardness testing of wire subsurface layers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... The original superheater tube U-bends were specified to be SA-106 Grade B pipe, while the four replacement tubes were specified to be 316 stainless steel. Performance of other Parts in Same or Similar Service The waste heat boiler system had been retrofitted with new larger superheaters. The prior...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... examples. The failures are from a variety of automobile valve springs made on four continents and from modified valve springs run in laboratory tests. Fig. 5 Valve spring that failed due to fatigue. Fractographs of similar valve springs are shown in Fig. 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , and 11 . 0.8...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in bending (flexure) is very common. Most strength testing of ceramics is done using a bend test—three-point or four-point flexure (uniaxial stress state, used on bars or rods) or ball-on-ring or ring-on-ring flexure (biaxial stress state, used on disks or plates). Bending is a common type of loading...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the bends ( Fig. 2 ). Minimal secondary cracks, no tube wall thinning, and no deposits on the tube interior were observed. Fig. 2 Side view of the second tube failure in both photos is similar to the other two failures. The arrow points to the crack initiation site. Testing Procedures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... locations as a result of the intrusion of water and salt, and the consequent heavy corrosion of the joint. The seizure of these joints led to high edgewise bending stress in the bars as the bridge underwent thermal movement. The cracking was enhanced by the presence of the corrosive medium so...