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formation of austenite

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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 63 Influence of carbon content on the formation of retained austenite. Source: Ref 30 More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... carbide formations in a martensite matrix and outlining of prior-austenite grains by a network of fine, white lines. These features indicated that the material had been transformed by carburization by the impinging gas. The outer surface exhibited a heavy scale deposit and numerous cracks that originated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract Corrosion in a closed-loop cooling water system constructed of austenitic stainless steel occurred during an extended lay up of the system with biologically contaminated water. The characteristics of the failure were those of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... such as σ phase, for instance, must be minimized [ 3 – 5 ]. Another deleterious phase, formed during thermomechanical processing of DSSs, is Cr 2 N. The Cr 2 N phase is also the main precipitate found in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of welded joints. The conditions that favor the formation of austenite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... fracture modes and morphologies are generally consistent with those of ductile metals, such as austenitic stainless steel, with one exception: Nitinol exhibits a unique damage mechanism under high bending strain, where damage occurs at the compression side of tight bends or kinks while the tensile side...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001208
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of the rod directly next to the weld bead. Investigation showed that the fracture of the superheated steam push rod spindle was caused by hardening and hardening crack formation in the weld seams and adjoining areas. It would have been preferable to avoid welding near the cross sectional transitions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the formation of polythionic acid in the process gas. ring type pipe joint fracture polythionic acid stainless steel transgranular fracture fractography creep strength 347 (austenitic wrought stainless steel) UNS S34700 321 (austenitic wrought stainless steel) UNS S32100 Introduction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001194
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., but exceptionally high copper content was noticeable. Microstructural examination showed the damage was due to overheating and burning during preheating and bending. Furthermore, crack formation was promoted by precipitation of metallic copper that had penetrated into the austenitic grain boundaries under...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract Leakage which developed from two storage vessels handling a mixture of trimethyl formate and chloroform took place from the dished head at the edge of the circumferential weld to the shell which incorporated a backing ring. Some shallow pitting had occurred under the backing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... surrounding the macrovoids and the concentration of stresses at their tips, caused extensive localized plastic deformation which led to the formation of microvoids and subsequently to the spalling of the oxide film. The non-protective character of the film induced a progressive deterioration of the grain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
.... The structure was found to be austenitic in the area where the grain-boundary precipitates appeared heaviest. The composition of the precipitates was analyzed using an electron microprobe to reveal presence of sulfur. Microstructural changes in the weld alloy at the interface were interpreted to be caused...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... 119 136 5 117 135 Average 116 135.4 Fig. 2 Optical macrofractograph of a fractured surface showing cleavage of brittle fracture Fig. 3 SEM micrograph of fractured surface showing precipitation of carbides in the austenite matrix and the formation of microcracks...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... products that are present in steel. The first step in the transformation process is to heat the steel to its austenitizing temperature. The steel is then cooled rapidly to avoid the formation of pearlite, which is a relatively soft transformation product; to maximize the formation of martensite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0046981
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
..., and a high operating temperature in a corrosive environment. When the microstructure near the stem surface was examined, it was apparent that carbide spheroidization had occurred. Also, there was a coarsening of the carbide network within the austenite grains. The microstructure indicated that the underhead...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... is based upon formation of tight oxide layers are not stable. Heat distributing units Heating coils Overheating 80Ni-20Cr High-temperature corrosion and oxidation A coil made of the nickel-chromium alloy NiCr 80 20 (Material No. 2.4869) with approx. 80 % Ni and 20% Cr had burnt...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001206
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... in shaping and welding technology, it should be possible to prevent crack formation with steel type 35.8 of normal composition. Cracking (fracturing) Pipe Welded joints St 35.8 Joining-related failures A number of seamless pipe nipples of 70 mm diameter and 3.5 mm wall thickness made of steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... microstructure also may occur when steel is heated in its coarsening range during austenitization. In this situation, the hardening response of a mixed microstructure can be unpredictable. The critical transformation temperature for austenite formation, Ac 3 , also depends on starting microstructure. Figure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...: Carburization caused to degradation of microstructure and after microstructure degradation, three different layers had been formed and caused to reduce tube life. Carburization of inner wall caused to formation carbide precipitates in the austenite matrix and the formation of grain boundary carbides, thus...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract In a housing made of cast steel GS 20MoV12 3, weighing 42 tons, precipitates were found on the austenitic grain boundaries during metallographic inspection. According to their shape and type they were recognized as carbides that precipitated during tempering. In addition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., was not due to the formation of low-melting-point precipitation at the grain boundary, but arose from the decrease in grain-boundary cohesion by sulfur segregation. The addition of molybdenum was remarkably effective for preventing internal cracks because of the decrease in sulfur segregation at austenitic...