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forging overlap

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001845
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... The investigation results suggest that the root cause of failure was a forging lap that occurred during manufacturing. Precracks induced by the forging defect and the influence of preload stress (due to bolt torque) caused the premature failure. cable clamps brittle fracture forging overlap copper alloy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0059924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract The large steel ring produced for a nuclear application from a billet of 8822 steel was inspected. The large billet was first forged into a doughnut preform in a large press, and then formed into the ring by ring rolling. A straight-beam ultrasonic inspection was instituted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... and the microstructure studied. Therefore, section the one remaining pinion tooth through the midsection. Mount and prepare the sample for a case hardness traverse and a microscopic examination. From the date of manufacture, the documented information on hand showed the pinion to be one of 10 forgings made from...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... surface, or alternately bonded region, may also be observed at fracture origins associated with inadequate upsetting or too little heat. Fig. 9 Appearance of an unwelded section in electric-resistance welded line pipe. Lap Welds These welds are made by forging a weld between overlapped...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...” in this Volume. One of the most powerful tools in a failure investigation is the stereomicroscope, using the low end (5 to 20×) of its magnification range. This is often a step that overlaps with visual examination. The relationship between the failed component, its primary damage, and other indications...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., such as an insufficient or missing groove for a groove weld, insufficient fit-up relief in a socket weld, or inadequate joint overlap in a brazed joint. Other geometry-caused failures can result from insufficient section thickness for a failure based on gross yielding, excessive section thickness in the presence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... or missing groove for a groove weld, insufficient fit-up relief in a socket weld, or inadequate joint overlap in a brazed joint. Other geometry-caused failures can result from insufficient section thickness for a failure based on gross yielding, excessive section thickness in the presence of a flaw...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... rolled, extruded, or forged products are stressed in the short-transverse direction. In wrought austenitic stainless steels, crack paths are usually transgranular if proper heat treatment has been employed. However, if thermal processing has produced sensitization because of carbide precipitation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... vibration arising from rotor imbalance and rub, and aerodynamic excitation occurring in upstream vanes, downstream struts, and blades whereby engine excitation frequencies and component response frequencies corresponding to different modes of vibration may overlap. Aeromechanical instability, primarily...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... separate cracks were present, most likely due to the fact that the section intersected two separate cracks which had broken out at different locations round the seam and during their subsequent development in the circumferential direction overlapped at their ends by a small amount. Fig. 13...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... indications that are found by nondestructive testing methods. Surface features that are causes for rejection include: Excessive mismatch at the weld joint Excessive bead convexity and bead reinforcement Excessive bead concavity, underfill, and undersized welds Sharp undercut and overlap...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-sized defects ( Ref 9 ). In some cases, unmelted powder particles are present within the lack-of-fusion region due to the evolution of the melt pool during processing. Lack-of-fusion defects are a result of insufficient overlap between passes, influenced by a mismatch in hatch-spacing parameters ( Ref...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... along elongated grains in heavily worked material, such as severely extruded alloys, or along the parting lines of some forgings ( Fig. 2b ). Grain facets may also be masked, such as by oxides, as is common of IG creep fracture surfaces. Fig. 1 SEM images of (a) IG fracture in ion-nitrided layer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001347
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the shell segment to nozzle ring is not a monoblock casting, forging, or full penetration butt weld. Fig. 13 illustrates the fillet weld lap joint attachment of the tank car nozzle to the two ring shell segments of the tank car shell. Fig. 13 Nozzle/plate lap weld to two center shell segment rings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... size is coarse. In some cases, however, the IG features may not be as obvious. For example, IG fractures may have a relatively smooth, featureless fracture surface along elongated grains in heavily worked material, such as severely extruded alloys, or along the parting lines of some forgings ( Fig. 2b...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The component was forged, and considerable directionality (banding and fibering) existed in the material. Crack propagation from bottom to top in the photograph. Courtesy of Michael West, University of Tennessee The common observation for steels is that fracture is initiated by (relatively large) sulfide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... particle in a quenched and tempered 4140 alloy steel due to a bending stress. The component was forged, and considerable directionality (banding and fibering) exists in the material. Crack propagation from bottom to top in the photograph. Courtesy of M. West, University of Tennessee The common...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... overlaps the periphery of the larger-diameter platen. Use pressure-sensitive-adhesive (PSA)-backed SiC grinding paper (when SiC is used) rather than water on the platen and a peripheral hold-down ring, and PSA-backed polishing cloths rather than stretched cloths. Metal-bonded or resin-bonded diamond...