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forging mechanical presses

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... hardness of the die was 48 HRC. Owing to a damaged surface, the die was removed from the production line after 30,000 hits. The forging operation is performed with a 250-ton mechanical eccentric press, with the workpiece initially at 700°C with a lubricated contact. The drop of the up die is done in 20 ms...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... hole since no material defects were found at the failure origin. Recommendations included redesign of the lubrication hole, shot peeing of the faces of the lug for added resistance to fatigue failure, and changing of the forging material to aluminum alloy 7175-T736 for its higher mechanical properties...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract An octagonal steel ingot weighing 13 tons made of manganese-molybdenum steel developed gaping cross-cracks on all eight sides in the forging press during initial pressure application. It was reported that the steel had been melted in a basic 12-ton arc furnace, oxygenated, furnished...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-die and upset forgings are produced from billets, bar stock, or a preform, all of which have received some previous mechanical working. The major problems associated with melting and casting practice are the development of centerline segregation and porosity and a condition known as scabs...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0059924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract The large steel ring produced for a nuclear application from a billet of 8822 steel was inspected. The large billet was first forged into a doughnut preform in a large press, and then formed into the ring by ring rolling. A straight-beam ultrasonic inspection was instituted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001724
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... America. Bad accidents occurred to two 100,000-kw. machines in Toronto in the first week of April 1954, in addition to the failures of four rotor forgings discussed before the American Society of Mechanical Engineers last winter and summarized in Metal Progress in February 1956. The wrecked Canadian...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... stressed area—typically a stress raiser, which may be mechanical, metallurgical, or sometimes a combination of the two. Mechanical stress raisers include such features as small fillets, sharp corners, grooves, splines, keyways, nicks, and press or shrink fits. Shafts often break at edges of press-fitted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... start at the most vulnerable point in a dynamically stressed area—typically a stress raiser, which may be mechanical, metallurgical, or sometimes a combination of the two. Mechanical stress raisers include such features as small fillets, sharp corners, grooves, splines, keyways, nicks, and press...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... on, these three orientations are longitudinal, long transverse, and short transverse. For other manufacturing operations such as die forgings, castings, and additive manufacturing, the mechanical property dependency on location and orientation can be even more complex. Therefore, it is important that any...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... that a preferential hard plane of material may have been created during the cold-heading operation. This hard plane would have lower ductility and possibly separate at the grain boundaries under load. This mechanism would not account for the delayed fractures. However, intergranular separation along forging planes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are produced from billets, bar stock, or a preform that has received some previous mechanical working. The product may be suitable for immediate application, but in many cases, it serves as the starting material for another (so-called secondary) deformation process, such as drawing, hot forging, cold forging...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... be tolerated and was inherent to the manufacturing process (e.g., a lap or a flash line in the case of forgings, porosity in the case of cast wheels). The distribution of the failure mechanisms was determined to be materials dependent. In general, fatigue was the most important failure mechanism for steels...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Alloy steel forgings used as structural members of a ski chair lift grip mechanism were identified to have contained forging laps during an annual magnetic particle inspection of all chair lift grip structural members at a mountain resort. A lap in one of the lift grip components ( Fig. 15 ) measured...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Fig. 6 Derailment 2. Arrows indicate boundary of galling damage and fracture-initiation location Each axle stub was pressed out of the bearing bores, and samples were sectioned from the fracture surface at and away from the initiation site. Mechanical property samples were also removed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., culminating in part with the development of the engineering discipline of fracture mechanics ( Ref 4 ). Through these and other efforts, insights into the cause and prevention of failures continue to evolve. Further discussion can be found in the article “ Failures Related to Welding ,” in Failure Analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... steel) UNS T20813 Introduction and Background Information Work rolls used for guiding, rolling, and straightening of metal products (flats, bars, profiles, etc.) are widely used in the metal-forming industry. Metal-working rolls are primarily manufactured from forged or cast steel or cast iron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... was there any indication of a pre-existing crack or major discontinuity at the point of origin. A sulfur print suggested the hook had been forged from a billet cogged down from an ingot of semi-killed steel. Failure of this hook was attributed to strain-age embrittlement of the material at the surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... Abstract This case study involves two continuously cast steel crankshaft failures. Three parties performed their own failure analyses: (1) the engine manufacturer responsible for component design, specification, and application; (2) the steel supplier and forging supplier responsible for making...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., concentric groove created during a press forming operation. It was also determined that atmospheric contamination occurred during the welding of the head, causing embrittlement, which may have also contributed to the failure. Recommendations were made addressing the problems that were observed. golf...