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forging mechanical presses

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... with a 250-ton mechanical eccentric press, with the workpiece initially at 700°C with a lubricated contact. The drop of the up die is done in 20 ms, and the effective contact duration between the tool and the workpiece is 30 ms. After several thousand forging operations, the die showed signs of fatigue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... higher mechanical properties. Aircraft components Forgings Landing gear 7075-T73 UNS A97075 Fatigue fracture The torque-arm assembly for an aircraft nose landing gear ( Fig. 1a ) failed after 22,779 simulated flights. The part, made from an aluminum alloy 7075-T73 forging, had an expected...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Because of their low density and high potential strength, aluminum forgings are found in automotive and aerospace applications. Like titanium, aluminum is highly strain-rate sensitive. In production with high-strain-rate tools such as hammers and mechanical presses, the rapid delivery of energy can cause...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract An octagonal steel ingot weighing 13 tons made of manganese-molybdenum steel developed gaping cross-cracks on all eight sides in the forging press during initial pressure application. It was reported that the steel had been melted in a basic 12-ton arc furnace, oxygenated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001724
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... in North America. Bad accidents occurred to two 100,000-kw. machines in Toronto in the first week of April 1954, in addition to the failures of four rotor forgings discussed before the American Society of Mechanical Engineers last winter and summarized in Metal Progress in February 1956. The wrecked...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... vulnerable point in a dynamically stressed area—typically a stress raiser, which may be mechanical, metallurgical, or sometimes a combination of the two. Mechanical stress raisers include such features as small fillets, sharp corners, grooves, splines, keyways, nicks, and press or shrink fits. Shafts often...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., but because of service conditions, the material was changed to grade 4140 steel. The forgings were made from 5.5 cm (2.156 in.) diameter bar stock by cutting to length, hot bending, upsetting, hot trimming the flash, hot pressing, and visually inspecting before shipping. The crankshafts were failing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0059924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract The large steel ring produced for a nuclear application from a billet of 8822 steel was inspected. The large billet was first forged into a doughnut preform in a large press, and then formed into the ring by ring rolling. A straight-beam ultrasonic inspection was instituted...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Alloy steel forgings used as structural members of a ski chair lift grip mechanism were identified to have contained forging laps during an annual magnetic particle inspection of all chair lift grip structural members at a mountain resort. A lap in one of the lift grip components ( Fig. 15 ) measured...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... cap, as seen in Fig. 32 . The journal stub was pressed out of the bearing. Present on the end of the journal was the axle fabrication data, shown in Fig. 33 . The axle was manufactured by Standard Forged Products, McKees Rocks Forgings of McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania, in June 1990 Fig. 31...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... on, these three orientations are longitudinal, long transverse, and short transverse. For other manufacturing operations such as die forgings, castings, and additive manufacturing, the mechanical property dependency on location and orientation can be even more complex. Therefore, it is important that any...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ). If the transformation occurs after the thermal stress maximum (sequence 1 in Fig. 12 ), the austenite is pressed into a barrel shape, followed by a volumetric increase due to martensitic transformation. This results in high tensile residual stresses on the surface. If the steel transformation occurs simultaneously...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... load. This mechanism would not account for the delayed fractures. However, intergranular separation along forging planes has been observed by the authors in aluminum alloys. Significant microhardness testing of fractured and intact pin sections indicated that no such hard plane existed at the common...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... , 2000 , p 118 – 123 30. Sachs N. , Practical Plant Failure Analysis: A Guide to Understanding Machinery Deterioration and Improving Equipment Reliability , 1st ed. , CRC Press , 2006 31. Rosenfield A.R. , Fracture Mechanics in Failure Analysis , Fatigue and Fracture , Vol...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... was there any indication of a pre-existing crack or major discontinuity at the point of origin. A sulfur print suggested the hook had been forged from a billet cogged down from an ingot of semi-killed steel. Failure of this hook was attributed to strain-age embrittlement of the material at the surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of forgings, porosity in the case of cast wheels). The distribution of the failure mechanisms was determined to be materials dependent. In general, fatigue was the most important failure mechanism for steels. For 300M steel however, SCC and corrosion were particularly significant and were often initiated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
...Abstract Abstract This case study involves two continuously cast steel crankshaft failures. Three parties performed their own failure analyses: (1) the engine manufacturer responsible for component design, specification, and application; (2) the steel supplier and forging supplier responsible...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are produced from billets, bar stock, or a preform that has received some previous mechanical working. The product may be suitable for immediate application, but in many cases, it serves as the starting material for another (so-called secondary) deformation process, such as drawing, hot forging, cold forging...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article focuses on the mechanisms and common causes of failure of metal components in lifting equipment in the following three categories: cranes and bridges, particularly those for outdoor and other low-temperature service; attachments used for direct lifting...